ActiveState!

ActivePerl Documentation
Table of Contents

(Usage Statistics)
(about this ver)


* Getting Started
    * Welcome To ActivePerl
    * Release Notes
    * Readme
    * ActivePerl Change Log
* Install Notes
    * Linux
    * Solaris
    * Windows
* ActivePerl Components
    * Overview
    * PPM
    * Windows Specifics
       * OLE Browser
       * PerlScript
       * Perl for ISAPI
       * PerlEZ
* ActivePerl FAQ
    * Introduction
    * Availability & Install
    * Using PPM
    * Docs & Support
    * Windows Specifics
       * Perl for ISAPI
       * Windows 9X/NT/2000
       * Quirks
       * Web Server Config
       * Web programming
       * Programming
       * Modules & Samples
       * Embedding & Extending
       * Using OLE with Perl
* Windows Scripting
    * Active Server Pages
    * Windows Script Host
    * Windows Script Components

Core Perl Documentation


* perl
* perlfaq
* perltoc
* perlbook

* perlsyn
* perldata
* perlop
* perlreftut
* perldsc
* perllol

* perllexwarn
* perldebug

* perlrun
* perlfunc
* perlopentut
* perlvar
* perlsub
* perlmod
* perlpod

* perlstyle
* perlmodlib
* perlmodinstall
* perltrap
* perlport
* perlsec

* perlref
* perlre
* perlform
* perllocale
* perlunicode

* perlboot
* perltoot
* perltootc
* perlobj
* perlbot
* perltie

* perlipc
* perlnumber
* perlfork
* perlthrtut

* perldiag
* perlfaq1
* perlfaq2
* perlfaq3
* perlfaq4
* perlfaq5
* perlfaq6
* perlfaq7
* perlfaq8
* perlfaq9

* perlcompile

* perlembed
* perlxstut
* perlxs
* perlguts
* perlcall
* perlfilter
* perldbmfilter
* perlapi
* perlintern
* perlapio
* perltodo
* perlhack

* perlhist
* perldelta
* perl5005delta
* perl5004delta

* perlamiga
* perlcygwin
* perldos
* perlhpux
* perlmachten
* perlos2
* perlos390
* perlvms
* perlwin32

Pragmas


* attributes
* attrs
* autouse
* base
* blib
* bytes
* charnames
* constant
* diagnostics
* fields
* filetest
* integer
* less
* lib
* locale
* lwpcook
* open
* ops
* overload
* perllocal
* re
* sigtrap
* strict
* subs
* utf8
* vars
* warnings

Libraries


* ActivePerl
    * DocTools
        * TOC
            * RDF
* AnyDBM_File
* Archive
    * Tar
* AutoLoader
* AutoSplit
* B
    * Asmdata
    * Assembler
    * Bblock
    * Bytecode
    * C
    * CC
    * Debug
    * Deparse
    * Disassembler
    * Lint
    * Showlex
    * Stackobj
    * Terse
    * Xref
* Benchmark
* Bundle
    * LWP
* ByteLoader
* Carp
    * Heavy
* CGI
    * Apache
    * Carp
    * Cookie
    * Fast
    * Pretty
    * Push
    * Switch
* Class
    * Struct
* Compress
    * Zlib
* Config
* CPAN
    * FirstTime
    * Nox
* Cwd
* Data
    * Dumper
* DB
* Devel
    * DProf
    * Peek
    * SelfStubber
* Digest
    * HMAC
    * HMAC_MD5
    * HMAC_SHA1
    * MD2
    * MD5
    * SHA1
* DirHandle
* Dumpvalue
* DynaLoader
* English
* Env
* Errno
* Exporter
    * Heavy
* ExtUtils
    * Command
    * Embed
    * Install
    * Installed
    * Liblist
    * MakeMaker
    * Manifest
    * Miniperl
    * Mkbootstrap
    * Mksymlists
    * MM_Cygwin
    * MM_OS2
    * MM_Unix
    * MM_VMS
    * MM_Win32
    * Packlist
    * testlib
* Fatal
* Fcntl
* File
    * Basename
    * CheckTree
    * Compare
    * Copy
    * CounterFile
    * DosGlob
    * Find
    * Glob
    * Listing
    * Path
    * Spec
        * Functions
        * Mac
        * OS2
        * Unix
        * VMS
        * Win32
    * stat
* FileCache
* FileHandle
* FindBin
* Font
    * AFM
* Getopt
    * Long
    * Std
* HTML
    * AsSubs
    * Element
    * Entities
    * Filter
    * Form
    * FormatPS
    * Formatter
    * FormatText
    * HeadParser
    * LinkExtor
    * Parse
    * Parser
    * TokeParser
    * TreeBuilder
* HTTP
    * Cookies
    * Daemon
    * Date
    * Headers
        * Util
    * Message
    * Negotiate
    * Request
        * Common
    * Response
    * Status
* I18N
    * Collate
* IO
    * Dir
    * File
    * Handle
    * Pipe
    * Poll
    * Seekable
    * Select
    * Socket
        * INET
        * UNIX
* IPC
    * Msg
    * Open2
    * Open3
    * Semaphore
    * SysV
* LWP
    * Debug
    * MediaTypes
    * MemberMixin
    * Protocol
    * RobotUA
    * Simple
    * UserAgent
* Math
    * BigFloat
    * BigInt
    * Complex
    * Trig
* MD5
* MIME
    * Base64
    * QuotedPrint
* NDBM_File
* Net
    * Cmd
    * Config
    * Domain
    * DummyInetd
    * FTP
    * hostent
    * libnetFAQ
    * netent
    * Netrc
    * NNTP
    * PH
    * Ping
    * POP3
    * protoent
    * servent
    * SMTP
    * SNPP
    * Time
* O
* ODBM_File
* Opcode
* Pod
    * Checker
    * Find
    * Html
    * InputObjects
    * Man
    * Parser
    * ParseUtils
    * Plainer
    * Select
    * Text
        * Color
        * Termcap
    * Usage
* POSIX
* PPM
    * SOAPClient
    * SOAPServer
* Safe
* SDBM_File
* Search
    * Dict
* SelectSaver
* SelfLoader
* SHA
* Shell
* SOAP
    * Defs
    * Envelope
    * EnvelopeMaker
    * GenericHashSerializer
    * GenericInputStream
    * GenericScalarSerializer
    * Lite
    * OutputStream
    * Packager
    * Parser
    * Transport
        * HTTP
            * Apache
            * CGI
            * Client
            * Server
        * LOCAL
        * MAILTO
        * POP3
        * TCP
    * TypeMapper
* Socket
* Symbol
* Sys
    * Hostname
    * Syslog
* Term
    * ANSIColor
    * Cap
    * Complete
    * ReadLine
* Test
    * Harness
* Text
    * Abbrev
    * ParseWords
    * Soundex
    * Tabs
    * Wrap
* Thread
    * Queue
    * Semaphore
    * Signal
    * Specific
* Tie
    * Array
    * Handle
    * Hash
    * RefHash
    * Scalar
    * SubstrHash
* Time
    * gmtime
    * Local
    * localtime
    * tm
* UDDI
    * Lite
* UNIVERSAL
* URI
    * data
    * Escape
    * file
    * Heuristic
    * ldap
    * URL
    * WithBase
* User
    * grent
    * pwent
* Win32
    * AuthenticateUser
    * ChangeNotify
    * Clipboard
    * Console
    * Event
    * EventLog
    * File
    * FileSecurity
    * Internet
    * IPC
    * Mutex
    * NetAdmin
    * NetResource
    * ODBC
    * OLE
        * Const
        * Enum
        * NEWS
        * NLS
        * TPJ
        * Variant
    * PerfLib
    * Pipe
    * Process
    * Registry
    * Semaphore
    * Service
    * Sound
    * TieRegistry
* Win32API
    * File
    * Net
    * Registry
* WWW
    * RobotRules
        * AnyDBM_File
* XML
    * Element
    * Parser
        * Expat
    * PPD
    * PPMConfig
    * ValidatingElement
* XSLoader

 perltoc - perl documentation table of contents


NAME

perltoc - perl documentation table of contents


DESCRIPTION

This page provides a brief table of contents for the rest of the Perl documentation set. It is meant to be scanned quickly or grepped through to locate the proper section you're looking for.


BASIC DOCUMENTATION

perl - Practical Extraction and Report Language

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
modularity and reusability using innumerable modules, embeddable and extensible, roll-your-own magic variables (including multiple simultaneous DBM implementations), subroutines can now be overridden, autoloaded, and prototyped, arbitrarily nested data structures and anonymous functions, object-oriented programming, compilability into C code or Perl bytecode, support for light-weight processes (threads), support for internationalization, localization, and Unicode, lexical scoping, regular expression enhancements, enhanced debugger and interactive Perl environment, with integrated editor support, POSIX 1003.1 compliant library

AVAILABILITY
ENVIRONMENT
AUTHOR
FILES
SEE ALSO
DIAGNOSTICS
BUGS
NOTES

perlfaq - frequently asked questions about Perl ($Date: 1999/05/23 20:38:02 $)

DESCRIPTION
perlfaq: Structural overview of the FAQ, the perlfaq1 manpage: General Questions About Perl, What is Perl?, Who supports Perl? Who develops it? Why is it free?, Which version of Perl should I use?, What are perl4 and perl5?, What is perl6?, How stable is Perl?, Is Perl difficult to learn?, How does Perl compare with other languages like Java, Python, REXX, Scheme, or Tcl?, Can I do [task] in Perl?, When shouldn't I program in Perl?, What's the difference between ``perl'' and ``Perl''?, Is it a Perl program or a Perl script?, What is a JAPH?, Where can I get a list of Larry Wall witticisms?, How can I convince my sysadmin/supervisor/employees to use version (5/5.005/Perl instead of some other language)?, the perlfaq2 manpage: Obtaining and Learning about Perl, What machines support Perl? Where do I get it?, How can I get a binary version of Perl?, I don't have a C compiler on my system. How can I compile perl?, I copied the Perl binary from one machine to another, but scripts don't work, I grabbed the sources and tried to compile but gdbm/dynamic loading/malloc/linking/... failed. How do I make it work?, What modules and extensions are available for Perl? What is CPAN? What does CPAN/src/... mean?, Is there an ISO or ANSI certified version of Perl?, Where can I get information on Perl?, What are the Perl newsgroups on USENET? Where do I post questions?, Where should I post source code?, Perl Books, Perl in Magazines, Perl on the Net: FTP and WWW Access, What mailing lists are there for perl?, Archives of comp.lang.perl.misc, Where can I buy a commercial version of Perl?, Where do I send bug reports?, What is perl.com?, the perlfaq3 manpage: Programming Tools, How do I do (anything)?, How can I use Perl interactively?, Is there a Perl shell?, How do I debug my Perl programs?, How do I profile my Perl programs?, How do I cross-reference my Perl programs?, Is there a pretty-printer (formatter) for Perl?, Is there a ctags for Perl?, Is there an IDE or Windows Perl Editor?, Where can I get Perl macros for vi?, Where can I get perl-mode for emacs?, How can I use curses with Perl?, How can I use X or Tk with Perl?, How can I generate simple menus without using CGI or Tk?, What is undump?, How can I make my Perl program run faster?, How can I make my Perl program take less memory?, Is it unsafe to return a pointer to local data?, How can I free an array or hash so my program shrinks?, How can I make my CGI script more efficient?, How can I hide the source for my Perl program?, How can I compile my Perl program into byte code or C?, How can I compile Perl into Java?, How can I get #!perl to work on [MS-DOS,NT,...]?, Can I write useful perl programs on the command line?, Why don't perl one-liners work on my DOS/Mac/VMS system?, Where can I learn about CGI or Web programming in Perl?, Where can I learn about object-oriented Perl programming?, Where can I learn about linking C with Perl? [h2xs, xsubpp], I've read perlembed, perlguts, etc., but I can't embed perl inmy C program, what am I doing wrong?, When I tried to run my script, I got this message. What does itmean?, What's MakeMaker?, the perlfaq4 manpage: Data Manipulation, Why am I getting long decimals (eg, 19.9499999999999) instead of the numbers I should be getting (eg, 19.95)?, Why isn't my octal data interpreted correctly?, Does Perl have a round() function? What about ceil() and floor()? Trig functions?, How do I convert bits into ints?, Why doesn't & work the way I want it to?, How do I multiply matrices?, How do I perform an operation on a series of integers?, How can I output Roman numerals?, Why aren't my random numbers random?, How do I find the week-of-the-year/day-of-the-year?, How do I find the current century or millennium?, How can I compare two dates and find the difference?, How can I take a string and turn it into epoch seconds?, How can I find the Julian Day?, How do I find yesterday's date?, Does Perl have a year 2000 problem? Is Perl Y2K compliant?, How do I validate input?, How do I unescape a string?, How do I remove consecutive pairs of characters?, How do I expand function calls in a string?, How do I find matching/nesting anything?, How do I reverse a string?, How do I expand tabs in a string?, How do I reformat a paragraph?, How can I access/change the first N letters of a string?, How do I change the Nth occurrence of something?, How can I count the number of occurrences of a substring within a string?, How do I capitalize all the words on one line?, How can I split a [character] delimited string except when inside[character]? (Comma-separated files), How do I strip blank space from the beginning/end of a string?, How do I pad a string with blanks or pad a number with zeroes?, How do I extract selected columns from a string?, How do I find the soundex value of a string?, How can I expand variables in text strings?, What's wrong with always quoting ``$vars''?, Why don't my <<HERE documents work?, What is the difference between a list and an array?, What is the difference between $array[1] and @array[1]?, How can I remove duplicate elements from a list or array?, How can I tell whether a list or array contains a certain element?, How do I compute the difference of two arrays? How do I compute the intersection of two arrays?, How do I test whether two arrays or hashes are equal?, How do I find the first array element for which a condition is true?, How do I handle linked lists?, How do I handle circular lists?, How do I shuffle an array randomly?, How do I process/modify each element of an array?, How do I select a random element from an array?, How do I permute N elements of a list?, How do I sort an array by (anything)?, How do I manipulate arrays of bits?, Why does defined() return true on empty arrays and hashes?, How do I process an entire hash?, What happens if I add or remove keys from a hash while iterating over it?, How do I look up a hash element by value?, How can I know how many entries are in a hash?, How do I sort a hash (optionally by value instead of key)?, How can I always keep my hash sorted?, What's the difference between ``delete'' and ``undef'' with hashes?, Why don't my tied hashes make the defined/exists distinction?, How do I reset an each() operation part-way through?, How can I get the unique keys from two hashes?, How can I store a multidimensional array in a DBM file?, How can I make my hash remember the order I put elements into it?, Why does passing a subroutine an undefined element in a hash create it?, How can I make the Perl equivalent of a C structure/C++ class/hash or array of hashes or arrays?, How can I use a reference as a hash key?, How do I handle binary data correctly?, How do I determine whether a scalar is a number/whole/integer/float?, How do I keep persistent data across program calls?, How do I print out or copy a recursive data structure?, How do I define methods for every class/object?, How do I verify a credit card checksum?, How do I pack arrays of doubles or floats for XS code?, the perlfaq5 manpage: Files and Formats, How do I flush/unbuffer an output filehandle? Why must I do this?, How do I change one line in a file/delete a line in a file/insert a line in the middle of a file/append to the beginning of a file?, How do I count the number of lines in a file?, How do I make a temporary file name?, How can I manipulate fixed-record-length files?, How can I make a filehandle local to a subroutine? How do I pass filehandles between subroutines? How do I make an array of filehandles?, How can I use a filehandle indirectly?, How can I set up a footer format to be used with write()?, How can I write() into a string?, How can I output my numbers with commas added?, How can I translate tildes (~) in a filename?, How come when I open a file read-write it wipes it out?, Why do I sometimes get an ``Argument list too long'' when I use <*>?, Is there a leak/bug in glob()?, How can I open a file with a leading ``>'' or trailing blanks?, How can I reliably rename a file?, How can I lock a file?, Why can't I just open(FH, ``>file.lock'')?, I still don't get locking. I just want to increment the number in the file. How can I do this?, How do I randomly update a binary file?, How do I get a file's timestamp in perl?, How do I set a file's timestamp in perl?, How do I print to more than one file at once?, How can I read in an entire file all at once?, How can I read in a file by paragraphs?, How can I read a single character from a file? From the keyboard?, How can I tell whether there's a character waiting on a filehandle?, How do I do a tail -f in perl?, How do I dup() a filehandle in Perl?, How do I close a file descriptor by number?, Why can't I use ``C:\temp\foo'' in DOS paths? What doesn't `C:\temp\foo.exe` work?, Why doesn't glob(``*.*'') get all the files?, Why does Perl let me delete read-only files? Why does -i clobber protected files? Isn't this a bug in Perl?, How do I select a random line from a file?, Why do I get weird spaces when I print an array of lines?, the perlfaq6 manpage: Regexps, How can I hope to use regular expressions without creating illegible and unmaintainable code?, I'm having trouble matching over more than one line. What's wrong?, How can I pull out lines between two patterns that are themselves on different lines?, I put a regular expression into $/ but it didn't work. What's wrong?, How do I substitute case insensitively on the LHS, but preserving case on the RHS?, How can I make \w match national character sets?, How can I match a locale-smart version of /[a-zA-Z]/?, How can I quote a variable to use in a regex?, What is /o really for?, How do I use a regular expression to strip C style comments from a file?, Can I use Perl regular expressions to match balanced text?, What does it mean that regexes are greedy? How can I get around it?, How do I process each word on each line?, How can I print out a word-frequency or line-frequency summary?, How can I do approximate matching?, How do I efficiently match many regular expressions at once?, Why don't word-boundary searches with \b work for me?, Why does using $&, $`, or $' slow my program down?, What good is \G in a regular expression?, Are Perl regexes DFAs or NFAs? Are they POSIX compliant?, What's wrong with using grep or map in a void context?, How can I match strings with multibyte characters?, How do I match a pattern that is supplied by the user?, the perlfaq7 manpage: General Perl Language Issues, Can I get a BNF/yacc/RE for the Perl language?, What are all these $@%&* punctuation signs, and how do I know when to use them?, Do I always/never have to quote my strings or use semicolons and commas?, How do I skip some return values?, How do I temporarily block warnings?, What's an extension?, Why do Perl operators have different precedence than C operators?, How do I declare/create a structure?, How do I create a module?, How do I create a class?, How can I tell if a variable is tainted?, What's a closure?, What is variable suicide and how can I prevent it?, How can I pass/return a {Function, FileHandle, Array, Hash, Method, Regex}?, How do I create a static variable?, What's the difference between dynamic and lexical (static) scoping? Between local() and my()?, How can I access a dynamic variable while a similarly named lexical is in scope?, What's the difference between deep and shallow binding?, Why doesn't ``my($foo) = <FILE>;'' work right?, How do I redefine a builtin function, operator, or method?, What's the difference between calling a function as &foo and foo()?, How do I create a switch or case statement?, How can I catch accesses to undefined variables/functions/methods?, Why can't a method included in this same file be found?, How can I find out my current package?, How can I comment out a large block of perl code?, How do I clear a package?, How can I use a variable as a variable name?, the perlfaq8 manpage: System Interaction, How do I find out which operating system I'm running under?, How come exec() doesn't return?, How do I do fancy stuff with the keyboard/screen/mouse?, How do I print something out in color?, How do I read just one key without waiting for a return key?, How do I check whether input is ready on the keyboard?, How do I clear the screen?, How do I get the screen size?, How do I ask the user for a password?, How do I read and write the serial port?, How do I decode encrypted password files?, How do I start a process in the background?, How do I trap control characters/signals?, How do I modify the shadow password file on a Unix system?, How do I set the time and date?, How can I sleep() or alarm() for under a second?, How can I measure time under a second?, How can I do an atexit() or setjmp()/longjmp()? (Exception handling), Why doesn't my sockets program work under System V (Solaris)? What does the error message ``Protocol not supported'' mean?, How can I call my system's unique C functions from Perl?, Where do I get the include files to do ioctl() or syscall()?, Why do setuid perl scripts complain about kernel problems?, How can I open a pipe both to and from a command?, Why can't I get the output of a command with system()?, How can I capture STDERR from an external command?, Why doesn't open() return an error when a pipe open fails?, What's wrong with using backticks in a void context?, How can I call backticks without shell processing?, Why can't my script read from STDIN after I gave it EOF (^D on Unix, ^Z on MS-DOS)?, How can I convert my shell script to perl?, Can I use perl to run a telnet or ftp session?, How can I write expect in Perl?, Is there a way to hide perl's command line from programs such as ``ps''?, I {changed directory, modified my environment} in a perl script. How come the change disappeared when I exited the script? How do I get my changes to be visible?, How do I close a process's filehandle without waiting for it to complete?, How do I fork a daemon process?, How do I make my program run with sh and csh?, How do I find out if I'm running interactively or not?, How do I timeout a slow event?, How do I set CPU limits?, How do I avoid zombies on a Unix system?, How do I use an SQL database?, How do I make a system() exit on control-C?, How do I open a file without blocking?, How do I install a module from CPAN?, What's the difference between require and use?, How do I keep my own module/library directory?, How do I add the directory my program lives in to the module/library search path?, How do I add a directory to my include path at runtime?, What is socket.ph and where do I get it?, the perlfaq9 manpage: Networking, My CGI script runs from the command line but not the browser. (500 Server Error), How can I get better error messages from a CGI program?, How do I remove HTML from a string?, How do I extract URLs?, How do I download a file from the user's machine? How do I open a file on another machine?, How do I make a pop-up menu in HTML?, How do I fetch an HTML file?, How do I automate an HTML form submission?, How do I decode or create those %-encodings on the web?, How do I redirect to another page?, How do I put a password on my web pages?, How do I edit my .htpasswd and .htgroup files with Perl?, How do I make sure users can't enter values into a form that cause my CGI script to do bad things?, How do I parse a mail header?, How do I decode a CGI form?, How do I check a valid mail address?, How do I decode a MIME/BASE64 string?, How do I return the user's mail address?, How do I send mail?, How do I read mail?, How do I find out my hostname/domainname/IP address?, How do I fetch a news article or the active newsgroups?, How do I fetch/put an FTP file?, How can I do RPC in Perl?
Where to get this document
How to contribute to this document
What will happen if you mail your Perl programming problems to the authors
Credits
Author and Copyright Information
Bundled Distributions
Disclaimer
Changes
23/May/99, 13/April/99, 7/January/99, 22/June/98, 24/April/97, 23/April/97, 25/March/97, 18/March/97, 17/March/97 Version, Initial Release: 11/March/97

perlfaq1 - General Questions About Perl ($Revision: 1.23 $, $Date: 1999/05/23 16:08:30 $)

DESCRIPTION
What is Perl?
Who supports Perl? Who develops it? Why is it free?
Which version of Perl should I use?
What are perl4 and perl5?
What is perl6?
How stable is Perl?
Is Perl difficult to learn?
How does Perl compare with other languages like Java, Python, REXX, Scheme, or Tcl?
Can I do [task] in Perl?
When shouldn't I program in Perl?
What's the difference between ``perl'' and ``Perl''?
Is it a Perl program or a Perl script?
What is a JAPH?
Where can I get a list of Larry Wall witticisms?
How can I convince my sysadmin/supervisor/employees to use version (5/5.005/Perl instead of some other language)?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq2 - Obtaining and Learning about Perl ($Revision: 1.32 $, $Date: 1999/10/14 18:46:09 $)

DESCRIPTION
What machines support Perl? Where do I get it?
How can I get a binary version of Perl?
I don't have a C compiler on my system. How can I compile perl?
I copied the Perl binary from one machine to another, but scripts don't work.
I grabbed the sources and tried to compile but gdbm/dynamic loading/malloc/linking/... failed. How do I make it work?
What modules and extensions are available for Perl? What is CPAN? What does CPAN/src/... mean?
Is there an ISO or ANSI certified version of Perl?
Where can I get information on Perl?
What are the Perl newsgroups on Usenet? Where do I post questions?
Where should I post source code?
Perl Books
References, Tutorials, Task-Oriented, Special Topics

Perl in Magazines
Perl on the Net: FTP and WWW Access
What mailing lists are there for Perl?
Archives of comp.lang.perl.misc
Where can I buy a commercial version of Perl?
Where do I send bug reports?
What is perl.com? Perl Mongers? pm.org? perl.org?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq3 - Programming Tools ($Revision: 1.38 $, $Date: 1999/05/23 16:08:30 $)

DESCRIPTION
How do I do (anything)?
How can I use Perl interactively?
Is there a Perl shell?
How do I debug my Perl programs?
How do I profile my Perl programs?
How do I cross-reference my Perl programs?
Is there a pretty-printer (formatter) for Perl?
Is there a ctags for Perl?
Is there an IDE or Windows Perl Editor?
Where can I get Perl macros for vi?
Where can I get perl-mode for emacs?
How can I use curses with Perl?
How can I use X or Tk with Perl?
How can I generate simple menus without using CGI or Tk?
What is undump?
How can I make my Perl program run faster?
How can I make my Perl program take less memory?
Is it unsafe to return a pointer to local data?
How can I free an array or hash so my program shrinks?
How can I make my CGI script more efficient?
How can I hide the source for my Perl program?
How can I compile my Perl program into byte code or C?
How can I compile Perl into Java?
How can I get #!perl to work on [MS-DOS,NT,...]?
Can I write useful Perl programs on the command line?
Why don't Perl one-liners work on my DOS/Mac/VMS system?
Where can I learn about CGI or Web programming in Perl?
Where can I learn about object-oriented Perl programming?
Where can I learn about linking C with Perl? [h2xs, xsubpp]
I've read perlembed, perlguts, etc., but I can't embed perl in my C program, what am I doing wrong?
When I tried to run my script, I got this message. What does it mean?
What's MakeMaker?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq4 - Data Manipulation ($Revision: 1.49 $, $Date: 1999/05/23 20:37:49 $)

DESCRIPTION
Data: Numbers
Why am I getting long decimals (eg, 19.9499999999999) instead of the numbers I should be getting (eg, 19.95)?
Why isn't my octal data interpreted correctly?
Does Perl have a round() function? What about ceil() and floor()? Trig functions?
How do I convert bits into ints?
Why doesn't & work the way I want it to?
How do I multiply matrices?
How do I perform an operation on a series of integers?
How can I output Roman numerals?
Why aren't my random numbers random?
Data: Dates
How do I find the week-of-the-year/day-of-the-year?
How do I find the current century or millennium?
How can I compare two dates and find the difference?
How can I take a string and turn it into epoch seconds?
How can I find the Julian Day?
How do I find yesterday's date?
Does Perl have a Year 2000 problem? Is Perl Y2K compliant?
Data: Strings
How do I validate input?
How do I unescape a string?
How do I remove consecutive pairs of characters?
How do I expand function calls in a string?
How do I find matching/nesting anything?
How do I reverse a string?
How do I expand tabs in a string?
How do I reformat a paragraph?
How can I access/change the first N letters of a string?
How do I change the Nth occurrence of something?
How can I count the number of occurrences of a substring within a string?
How do I capitalize all the words on one line?
How can I split a [character] delimited string except when inside [character]? (Comma-separated files)
How do I strip blank space from the beginning/end of a string?
How do I pad a string with blanks or pad a number with zeroes?
How do I extract selected columns from a string?
How do I find the soundex value of a string?
How can I expand variables in text strings?
What's wrong with always quoting ``$vars''?
Why don't my <<HERE documents work?
1. There must be no space after the << part, 2. There (probably) should be a semicolon at the end, 3. You can't (easily) have any space in front of the tag

Data: Arrays
What is the difference between a list and an array?
What is the difference between $array[1] and @array[1]?
How can I remove duplicate elements from a list or array?
a) If @in is sorted, and you want @out to be sorted:(this assumes all true values in the array), b) If you don't know whether @in is sorted:, c) Like (b), but @in contains only small integers:, d) A way to do (b) without any loops or greps:, e) Like (d), but @in contains only small positive integers:

How can I tell whether a list or array contains a certain element?
How do I compute the difference of two arrays? How do I compute the intersection of two arrays?
How do I test whether two arrays or hashes are equal?
How do I find the first array element for which a condition is true?
How do I handle linked lists?
How do I handle circular lists?
How do I shuffle an array randomly?
How do I process/modify each element of an array?
How do I select a random element from an array?
How do I permute N elements of a list?
How do I sort an array by (anything)?
How do I manipulate arrays of bits?
Why does defined() return true on empty arrays and hashes?
Data: Hashes (Associative Arrays)
How do I process an entire hash?
What happens if I add or remove keys from a hash while iterating over it?
How do I look up a hash element by value?
How can I know how many entries are in a hash?
How do I sort a hash (optionally by value instead of key)?
How can I always keep my hash sorted?
What's the difference between ``delete'' and ``undef'' with hashes?
Why don't my tied hashes make the defined/exists distinction?
How do I reset an each() operation part-way through?
How can I get the unique keys from two hashes?
How can I store a multidimensional array in a DBM file?
How can I make my hash remember the order I put elements into it?
Why does passing a subroutine an undefined element in a hash create it?
How can I make the Perl equivalent of a C structure/C++ class/hash or array of hashes or arrays?
How can I use a reference as a hash key?
Data: Misc
How do I handle binary data correctly?
How do I determine whether a scalar is a number/whole/integer/float?
How do I keep persistent data across program calls?
How do I print out or copy a recursive data structure?
How do I define methods for every class/object?
How do I verify a credit card checksum?
How do I pack arrays of doubles or floats for XS code?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq5 - Files and Formats ($Revision: 1.38 $, $Date: 1999/05/23 16:08:30 $)

DESCRIPTION
How do I flush/unbuffer an output filehandle? Why must I do this?
How do I change one line in a file/delete a line in a file/insert a line in the middle of a file/append to the beginning of a file?
How do I count the number of lines in a file?
How do I make a temporary file name?
How can I manipulate fixed-record-length files?
How can I make a filehandle local to a subroutine? How do I pass filehandles between subroutines? How do I make an array of filehandles?
How can I use a filehandle indirectly?
How can I set up a footer format to be used with write()?
How can I write() into a string?
How can I output my numbers with commas added?
How can I translate tildes (~) in a filename?
How come when I open a file read-write it wipes it out?
Why do I sometimes get an ``Argument list too long'' when I use <*>?
Is there a leak/bug in glob()?
How can I open a file with a leading ``>'' or trailing blanks?
How can I reliably rename a file?
How can I lock a file?
Why can't I just open(FH, ``>file.lock'')?
I still don't get locking. I just want to increment the number in the file. How can I do this?
How do I randomly update a binary file?
How do I get a file's timestamp in perl?
How do I set a file's timestamp in perl?
How do I print to more than one file at once?
How can I read in an entire file all at once?
How can I read in a file by paragraphs?
How can I read a single character from a file? From the keyboard?
How can I tell whether there's a character waiting on a filehandle?
How do I do a tail -f in perl?
How do I dup() a filehandle in Perl?
How do I close a file descriptor by number?
Why can't I use ``C:\temp\foo'' in DOS paths? What doesn't `C:\temp\foo.exe` work?
Why doesn't glob(``*.*'') get all the files?
Why does Perl let me delete read-only files? Why does -i clobber protected files? Isn't this a bug in Perl?
How do I select a random line from a file?
Why do I get weird spaces when I print an array of lines?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq6 - Regexes ($Revision: 1.27 $, $Date: 1999/05/23 16:08:30 $)

DESCRIPTION
How can I hope to use regular expressions without creating illegible and unmaintainable code?
Comments Outside the Regex, Comments Inside the Regex, Different Delimiters

I'm having trouble matching over more than one line. What's wrong?
How can I pull out lines between two patterns that are themselves on different lines?
I put a regular expression into $/ but it didn't work. What's wrong?
How do I substitute case insensitively on the LHS, but preserving case on the RHS?
How can I make \w match national character sets?
How can I match a locale-smart version of /[a-zA-Z]/?
How can I quote a variable to use in a regex?
What is /o really for?
How do I use a regular expression to strip C style comments from a file?
Can I use Perl regular expressions to match balanced text?
What does it mean that regexes are greedy? How can I get around it?
How do I process each word on each line?
How can I print out a word-frequency or line-frequency summary?
How can I do approximate matching?
How do I efficiently match many regular expressions at once?
Why don't word-boundary searches with \b work for me?
Why does using $&, $`, or $' slow my program down?
What good is \G in a regular expression?
Are Perl regexes DFAs or NFAs? Are they POSIX compliant?
What's wrong with using grep or map in a void context?
How can I match strings with multibyte characters?
How do I match a pattern that is supplied by the user?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq7 - Perl Language Issues ($Revision: 1.28 $, $Date: 1999/05/23 20:36:18 $)

DESCRIPTION
Can I get a BNF/yacc/RE for the Perl language?
What are all these $@%&* punctuation signs, and how do I know when to use them?
Do I always/never have to quote my strings or use semicolons and commas?
How do I skip some return values?
How do I temporarily block warnings?
What's an extension?
Why do Perl operators have different precedence than C operators?
How do I declare/create a structure?
How do I create a module?
How do I create a class?
How can I tell if a variable is tainted?
What's a closure?
What is variable suicide and how can I prevent it?
How can I pass/return a {Function, FileHandle, Array, Hash, Method, Regex}?
Passing Variables and Functions, Passing Filehandles, Passing Regexes, Passing Methods

How do I create a static variable?
What's the difference between dynamic and lexical (static) scoping? Between local() and my()?
How can I access a dynamic variable while a similarly named lexical is in scope?
What's the difference between deep and shallow binding?
Why doesn't ``my($foo) = <FILE>;'' work right?
How do I redefine a builtin function, operator, or method?
What's the difference between calling a function as &foo and foo()?
How do I create a switch or case statement?
How can I catch accesses to undefined variables/functions/methods?
Why can't a method included in this same file be found?
How can I find out my current package?
How can I comment out a large block of perl code?
How do I clear a package?
How can I use a variable as a variable name?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq8 - System Interaction ($Revision: 1.39 $, $Date: 1999/05/23 18:37:57 $)

DESCRIPTION
How do I find out which operating system I'm running under?
How come exec() doesn't return?
How do I do fancy stuff with the keyboard/screen/mouse?
Keyboard, Screen, Mouse

How do I print something out in color?
How do I read just one key without waiting for a return key?
How do I check whether input is ready on the keyboard?
How do I clear the screen?
How do I get the screen size?
How do I ask the user for a password?
How do I read and write the serial port?
lockfiles, open mode, end of line, flushing output, non-blocking input

How do I decode encrypted password files?
How do I start a process in the background?
STDIN, STDOUT, and STDERR are shared, Signals, Zombies

How do I trap control characters/signals?
How do I modify the shadow password file on a Unix system?
How do I set the time and date?
How can I sleep() or alarm() for under a second?
How can I measure time under a second?
How can I do an atexit() or setjmp()/longjmp()? (Exception handling)
Why doesn't my sockets program work under System V (Solaris)? What does the error message ``Protocol not supported'' mean?
How can I call my system's unique C functions from Perl?
Where do I get the include files to do ioctl() or syscall()?
Why do setuid perl scripts complain about kernel problems?
How can I open a pipe both to and from a command?
Why can't I get the output of a command with system()?
How can I capture STDERR from an external command?
Why doesn't open() return an error when a pipe open fails?
What's wrong with using backticks in a void context?
How can I call backticks without shell processing?
Why can't my script read from STDIN after I gave it EOF (^D on Unix, ^Z on MS-DOS)?
How can I convert my shell script to perl?
Can I use perl to run a telnet or ftp session?
How can I write expect in Perl?
Is there a way to hide perl's command line from programs such as ``ps''?
I {changed directory, modified my environment} in a perl script. How come the change disappeared when I exited the script? How do I get my changes to be visible?
Unix

How do I close a process's filehandle without waiting for it to complete?
How do I fork a daemon process?
How do I make my program run with sh and csh?
How do I find out if I'm running interactively or not?
How do I timeout a slow event?
How do I set CPU limits?
How do I avoid zombies on a Unix system?
How do I use an SQL database?
How do I make a system() exit on control-C?
How do I open a file without blocking?
How do I install a module from CPAN?
What's the difference between require and use?
How do I keep my own module/library directory?
How do I add the directory my program lives in to the module/library search path?
How do I add a directory to my include path at runtime?
What is socket.ph and where do I get it?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq9 - Networking ($Revision: 1.26 $, $Date: 1999/05/23 16:08:30 $)

DESCRIPTION
My CGI script runs from the command line but not the browser. (500 Server Error)
How can I get better error messages from a CGI program?
How do I remove HTML from a string?
How do I extract URLs?
How do I download a file from the user's machine? How do I open a file on another machine?
How do I make a pop-up menu in HTML?
How do I fetch an HTML file?
How do I automate an HTML form submission?
How do I decode or create those %-encodings on the web?
How do I redirect to another page?
How do I put a password on my web pages?
How do I edit my .htpasswd and .htgroup files with Perl?
How do I make sure users can't enter values into a form that cause my CGI script to do bad things?
How do I parse a mail header?
How do I decode a CGI form?
How do I check a valid mail address?
How do I decode a MIME/BASE64 string?
How do I return the user's mail address?
How do I send mail?
How do I read mail?
How do I find out my hostname/domainname/IP address?
How do I fetch a news article or the active newsgroups?
How do I fetch/put an FTP file?
How can I do RPC in Perl?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perldelta - what's new for perl v5.6.0

DESCRIPTION
Core Enhancements
Interpreter cloning, threads, and concurrency
Lexically scoped warning categories
Unicode and UTF-8 support
Support for interpolating named characters
``our'' declarations
Support for strings represented as a vector of ordinals
Improved Perl version numbering system
New syntax for declaring subroutine attributes
File and directory handles can be autovivified
open() with more than two arguments
  • -bit support
    Large file support
    Long doubles
    ``more bits''
    Enhanced support for sort() subroutines
    sort $coderef @foo allowed
    File globbing implemented internally
    Support for CHECK blocks

    POSIX character class syntax [: :] supported
    Better pseudo-random number generator

    Improved qw// operator
    Better worst-case behavior of hashes

    pack() format 'Z' supported
    pack() format modifier '!' supported
    pack() and unpack() support counted strings
    Comments in pack() templates
    Weak references
    Binary numbers supported
    Lvalue subroutines
    Some arrows may be omitted in calls through references
    Boolean assignment operators are legal lvalues
    exists() is supported on subroutine names
    exists() and delete() are supported on array elements
    Pseudo-hashes work better
    Automatic flushing of output buffers
    Better diagnostics on meaningless filehandle operations
    Where possible, buffered data discarded from duped input filehandle
    eof() has the same old magic as <>
    binmode() can be used to set :crlf and :raw modes
    -T filetest recognizes UTF-8 encoded files as ``text''
    system(), backticks and pipe open now reflect exec() failure
    Improved diagnostics
    Diagnostics follow STDERR
    More consistent close-on-exec behavior

    syswrite() ease-of-use
    Better syntax checks on parenthesized unary operators
    Bit operators support full native integer width
    Improved security features
    More functional bareword prototype (*)

    require and do may be overridden
    $^X variables may now have names longer than one character
    New variable $^C reflects -c switch
    New variable $^V contains Perl version as a string
    Optional Y2K warnings
  • Modules and Pragmata
    Modules
    attributes, B, Benchmark, ByteLoader, constant, charnames, Data::Dumper, DB, DB_File, Devel::DProf, Devel::Peek, Dumpvalue, DynaLoader, English, Env, Fcntl, File::Compare, File::Find, File::Glob, File::Spec, File::Spec::Functions, Getopt::Long, IO, JPL, lib, Math::BigInt, Math::Complex, Math::Trig, Pod::Parser, Pod::InputObjects, Pod::Checker, podchecker, Pod::ParseUtils, Pod::Find, Pod::Select, podselect, Pod::Usage, pod2usage, Pod::Text and Pod::Man, SDBM_File, Sys::Syslog, Sys::Hostname, Term::ANSIColor, Time::Local, Win32, XSLoader, DBM Filters

    Pragmata
    Utility Changes
    dprofpp
    find2perl
    h2xs
    perlcc
    perldoc
    The Perl Debugger
    Improved Documentation
    perlapi.pod, perlboot.pod, perlcompile.pod, perldbmfilter.pod, perldebug.pod, perldebguts.pod, perlfork.pod, perlfilter.pod, perlhack.pod, perlintern.pod, perllexwarn.pod, perlnumber.pod, perlopentut.pod, perlreftut.pod, perltootc.pod, perltodo.pod, perlunicode.pod

    Performance enhancements
    Simple sort() using { $a <=> $b } and the like are optimized
    Optimized assignments to lexical variables
    Faster subroutine calls
    delete(), each(), values() and hash iteration are faster

    Installation and Configuration Improvements
    -Dusethreads means something different
    New Configure flags
    Threadedness and 64-bitness now more daring
    Long Doubles
    -Dusemorebits
    -Duselargefiles
    installusrbinperl
    SOCKS support
    -A flag
    Enhanced Installation Directories
    Platform specific changes
    Supported platforms
    DOS
    OS390 (OpenEdition MVS)
    VMS
    Win32
    Significant bug fixes
    <HANDLE> on empty files
    eval '...' improvements
    All compilation errors are true errors
    Implicitly closed filehandles are safer
    Behavior of list slices is more consistent
    (\$) prototype and $foo{a}
    goto &sub and AUTOLOAD
    -bareword allowed under use integer
    Failures in DESTROY()
    Locale bugs fixed
    Memory leaks
    Spurious subroutine stubs after failed subroutine calls
    Taint failures under -U
    END blocks and the -c switch
    Potential to leak DATA filehandles
    New or Changed Diagnostics
    ``%s'' variable %s masks earlier declaration in same %s, ``my sub'' not yet implemented, ``our'' variable %s redeclared, '!' allowed only after types %s, / cannot take a count, / must be followed by a, A or Z, / must be followed by a*, A* or Z*, / must follow a numeric type, /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through, /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c in character class passed through, /%s/ should probably be written as ``%s'', %s() called too early to check prototype, %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element, %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice, %s argument is not a subroutine name, %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s, (in cleanup) %s, <> should be quotes, Attempt to join self, Bad evalled substitution pattern, Bad realloc() ignored, Bareword found in conditional, Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable, Bit vector size > 32 non-portable, Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s, Can't check filesystem of script ``%s'', Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in ``%s'', Can't declare %s in ``%s'', Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default, Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call, Can't read CRTL environ, Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file, Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine, Can't weaken a nonreference, Character class [:%s:] unknown, Character class syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes, Constant is not %s reference, constant(%s): %s, CORE::%s is not a keyword, defined(@array) is deprecated, defined(%hash) is deprecated, Did not produce a valid header, (Did you mean ``local'' instead of ``our''?), Document contains no data, entering effective %s failed, false [] range ``%s'' in regexp, Filehandle %s opened only for output, flock() on closed filehandle %s, Global symbol ``%s'' requires explicit package name, Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable, Ill-formed CRTL environ value ``%s'', Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|, Illegal binary digit %s, Illegal binary digit %s ignored, Illegal number of bits in vec, Integer overflow in %s number, Invalid %s attribute: %s, Invalid %s attributes: %s, invalid [] range ``%s'' in regexp, Invalid separator character %s in attribute list, Invalid separator character %s in subroutine attribute list, leaving effective %s failed, Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet, Method %s not permitted, Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}, Missing command in piped open, Missing name in ``my sub'', No %s specified for -%c, No package name allowed for variable %s in ``our'', No space allowed after -%c, no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC, Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable, panic: del_backref, panic: kid popen errno read, panic: magic_killbackrefs, Parentheses missing around ``%s'' list, Possible Y2K bug: %s, pragma ``attrs'' is deprecated, use ``sub NAME : ATTRS'' instead, Premature end of script headers, Repeat count in pack overflows, Repeat count in unpack overflows, realloc() of freed memory ignored, Reference is already weak, setpgrp can't take arguments, Strange *+?{} on zero-length expression, switching effective %s is not implemented, This Perl can't reset CRTL environ elements (%s), This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s), Too late to run %s block, Unknown open() mode '%s', Unknown process %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s, Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through, Unterminated attribute parameter in attribute list, Unterminated attribute list, Unterminated attribute parameter in subroutine attribute list, Unterminated subroutine attribute list, Value of CLI symbol ``%s'' too long, Version number must be a constant number

    New tests
    Incompatible Changes
    Perl Source Incompatibilities
    CHECK is a new keyword, Treatment of list slices of undef has changed

    Format of $English::PERL_VERSION is different
    Literals of the form 1.2.3 parse differently, Possibly changed pseudo-random number generator, Hashing function for hash keys has changed, undef fails on read only values, Close-on-exec bit may be set on pipe and socket handles, Writing "$$1" to mean "${$}1" is unsupported, delete(), values() and \(%h) operate on aliases to values, not copies, vec(EXPR,OFFSET,BITS) enforces powers-of-two BITS, Text of some diagnostic output has changed, %@ has been removed, Parenthesized not() behaves like a list operator, Semantics of bareword prototype (*) have changed

    Semantics of bit operators may have changed on 64-bit platforms
    More builtins taint their results
    C Source Incompatibilities
    PERL_POLLUTE, PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT, PERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC

    Compatible C Source API Changes
    PATCHLEVEL is now PERL_VERSION

    Binary Incompatibilities
    Known Problems
    Thread test failures
    EBCDIC platforms not supported
    In 64-bit HP-UX the lib/io_multihomed test may hang
    NEXTSTEP 3.3 POSIX test failure
    Tru64 (aka Digital UNIX, aka DEC OSF/1) lib/sdbm test failure with gcc
    UNICOS/mk CC failures during Configure run
    Arrow operator and arrays
    Windows 2000
    Experimental features
    Threads, Unicode, 64-bit support, Lvalue subroutines, Weak references, The pseudo-hash data type, The Compiler suite, Internal implementation of file globbing, The DB module, The regular expression constructs (?{ code }) and (??{ code })

    Obsolete Diagnostics
    Character class syntax [: :] is reserved for future extensions, Ill-formed logical name |%s| in prime_env_iter, Probable precedence problem on %s, regexp too big, Use of ``$$<digit>'' to mean ``${$}<digit>'' is deprecated

    Reporting Bugs
    SEE ALSO
    HISTORY

    perldata - Perl data types

    DESCRIPTION
    Variable names
    Context
    Scalar values
    Scalar value constructors
    List value constructors
    Slices
    Typeglobs and Filehandles
    SEE ALSO

    perlsyn - Perl syntax

    DESCRIPTION
    Declarations
    Simple statements
    Compound statements
    Loop Control
    For Loops
    Foreach Loops
    Basic BLOCKs and Switch Statements
    Goto
    PODs: Embedded Documentation
    Plain Old Comments (Not!)

    perlop - Perl operators and precedence

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Terms and List Operators (Leftward)
    The Arrow Operator
    Auto-increment and Auto-decrement
    Exponentiation
    Symbolic Unary Operators
    Binding Operators
    Multiplicative Operators
    Additive Operators
    Shift Operators
    Named Unary Operators
    Relational Operators
    Equality Operators
    Bitwise And
    Bitwise Or and Exclusive Or
    C-style Logical And
    C-style Logical Or
    Range Operators
    Conditional Operator
    Assignment Operators
    Comma Operator
    List Operators (Rightward)
    Logical Not
    Logical And
    Logical or and Exclusive Or
    C Operators Missing From Perl
    unary &, unary *, (TYPE)

    Quote and Quote-like Operators
    Regexp Quote-Like Operators
    ?PATTERN?, m/PATTERN/cgimosx, /PATTERN/cgimosx, q/STRING/, 'STRING', qq/STRING/, ``STRING'', qr/STRING/imosx, qx/STRING/, `STRING`, qw/STRING/, s/PATTERN/REPLACEMENT/egimosx, tr/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cdsUC, y/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cdsUC

    Gory details of parsing quoted constructs
    Finding the end, Removal of backslashes before delimiters, Interpolation, <<'EOF', m'', s''', tr///, y///, '', q//, "", ``, qq//, qx//, <file*glob>, ?RE?, /RE/, m/RE/, s/RE/foo/,, Interpolation of regular expressions, Optimization of regular expressions

    I/O Operators
    Constant Folding
    Bitwise String Operators
    Integer Arithmetic
    Floating-point Arithmetic
    Bigger Numbers

    perlre - Perl regular expressions

    DESCRIPTION
    i, m, s, x
    Regular Expressions
    cntrl, graph, print, punct, xdigit

    Extended Patterns
    (?#text), (?imsx-imsx), (?:pattern), (?imsx-imsx:pattern), (?=pattern), (?!pattern), (?<=pattern), (?<!pattern), (?{ code }), (??{ code }), (?>pattern), (?(condition)yes-pattern|no-pattern), (?(condition)yes-pattern)

    Backtracking
    Version 8 Regular Expressions
    Warning on \1 vs $1
    Repeated patterns matching zero-length substring
    Combining pieces together
    ST, S|T, S{REPEAT_COUNT}, S{min,max}, S{min,max}?, S?, S*, S+, S??, S*?, S+?, (?>S), (?=S), (?<=S), (?!S), (?<!S), (??{ EXPR }), (?(condition)yes-pattern|no-pattern)

    Creating custom RE engines
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO

    perlrun - how to execute the Perl interpreter

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    #! and quoting on non-Unix systems
    OS/2, MS-DOS, Win95/NT, Macintosh, VMS

    Location of Perl
    Command Switches
    -0[digits], -a, -C, -c, -d, -d:foo, -Dletters, -Dnumber, -e commandline, -Fpattern, -h, -i[extension], -Idirectory, -l[octnum], -m[-]module, -M[-]module, -M[-]'module ...', -[mM][-]module=arg[,arg]..., -n, -p, -P, -s, -S, -T, -u, -U, -v, -V, -V:name, -w, -W, -X, -x directory

    ENVIRONMENT
    HOME, LOGDIR, PATH, PERL5LIB, PERL5OPT, PERLLIB, PERL5DB, PERL5SHELL (specific to the Win32 port), PERL_DEBUG_MSTATS, PERL_DESTRUCT_LEVEL

    perlfunc - Perl builtin functions

    DESCRIPTION
    Perl Functions by Category
    Functions for SCALARs or strings, Regular expressions and pattern matching, Numeric functions, Functions for real @ARRAYs, Functions for list data, Functions for real %HASHes, Input and output functions, Functions for fixed length data or records, Functions for filehandles, files, or directories, Keywords related to the control flow of your perl program, Keywords related to scoping, Miscellaneous functions, Functions for processes and process groups, Keywords related to perl modules, Keywords related to classes and object-orientedness, Low-level socket functions, System V interprocess communication functions, Fetching user and group info, Fetching network info, Time-related functions, Functions new in perl5, Functions obsoleted in perl5

    Portability
    Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions
    -X FILEHANDLE, -X EXPR, -X, abs VALUE, abs, accept NEWSOCKET,GENERICSOCKET, alarm SECONDS, alarm, atan2 Y,X, bind SOCKET,NAME, binmode FILEHANDLE, DISCIPLINE, binmode FILEHANDLE, bless REF,CLASSNAME, bless REF, caller EXPR, caller, chdir EXPR, chmod LIST, chomp VARIABLE, chomp LIST, chomp, chop VARIABLE, chop LIST, chop, chown LIST, chr NUMBER, chr, chroot FILENAME, chroot, close FILEHANDLE, close, closedir DIRHANDLE, connect SOCKET,NAME, continue BLOCK, cos EXPR, crypt PLAINTEXT,SALT, dbmclose HASH, dbmopen HASH,DBNAME,MASK, defined EXPR, defined, delete EXPR, die LIST, do BLOCK, do SUBROUTINE(LIST), do EXPR, dump LABEL, dump, each HASH, eof FILEHANDLE, eof (), eof, eval EXPR, eval BLOCK, exec LIST, exec PROGRAM LIST, exists EXPR, exit EXPR, exp EXPR, exp, fcntl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, fileno FILEHANDLE, flock FILEHANDLE,OPERATION, fork, format, formline PICTURE,LIST, getc FILEHANDLE, getc, getlogin, getpeername SOCKET, getpgrp PID, getppid, getpriority WHICH,WHO, getpwnam NAME, getgrnam NAME, gethostbyname NAME, getnetbyname NAME, getprotobyname NAME, getpwuid UID, getgrgid GID, getservbyname NAME,PROTO, gethostbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getnetbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getprotobynumber NUMBER, getservbyport PORT,PROTO, getpwent, getgrent, gethostent, getnetent, getprotoent, getservent, setpwent, setgrent, sethostent STAYOPEN, setnetent STAYOPEN, setprotoent STAYOPEN, setservent STAYOPEN, endpwent, endgrent, endhostent, endnetent, endprotoent, endservent, getsockname SOCKET, getsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME, glob EXPR, glob, gmtime EXPR, goto LABEL, goto EXPR, goto &NAME, grep BLOCK LIST, grep EXPR,LIST, hex EXPR, hex, import, index STR,SUBSTR,POSITION, index STR,SUBSTR, int EXPR, int, ioctl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, join EXPR,LIST, keys HASH, kill SIGNAL, LIST, last LABEL, last, lc EXPR, lc, lcfirst EXPR, lcfirst, length EXPR, length, link OLDFILE,NEWFILE, listen SOCKET,QUEUESIZE, local EXPR, localtime EXPR, lock, log EXPR, log, lstat FILEHANDLE, lstat EXPR, lstat, m//, map BLOCK LIST, map EXPR,LIST, mkdir FILENAME,MASK, mkdir FILENAME, msgctl ID,CMD,ARG, msgget KEY,FLAGS, msgrcv ID,VAR,SIZE,TYPE,FLAGS, msgsnd ID,MSG,FLAGS, my EXPR, my EXPR : ATTRIBUTES, next LABEL, next, no Module LIST, oct EXPR, oct, open FILEHANDLE,MODE,LIST, open FILEHANDLE,EXPR, open FILEHANDLE, opendir DIRHANDLE,EXPR, ord EXPR, ord, our EXPR, pack TEMPLATE,LIST, package, package NAMESPACE, pipe READHANDLE,WRITEHANDLE, pop ARRAY, pop, pos SCALAR, pos, print FILEHANDLE LIST, print LIST, print, printf FILEHANDLE FORMAT, LIST, printf FORMAT, LIST, prototype FUNCTION, push ARRAY,LIST, q/STRING/, qq/STRING/, qr/STRING/, qx/STRING/, qw/STRING/, quotemeta EXPR, quotemeta, rand EXPR, rand, read FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, read FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, readdir DIRHANDLE, readline EXPR, readlink EXPR, readlink, readpipe EXPR, recv SOCKET,SCALAR,LENGTH,FLAGS, redo LABEL, redo, ref EXPR, ref, rename OLDNAME,NEWNAME, require VERSION, require EXPR, require, reset EXPR, reset, return EXPR, return, reverse LIST, rewinddir DIRHANDLE, rindex STR,SUBSTR,POSITION, rindex STR,SUBSTR, rmdir FILENAME, rmdir, s///, scalar EXPR, seek FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE, seekdir DIRHANDLE,POS, select FILEHANDLE, select, select RBITS,WBITS,EBITS,TIMEOUT, semctl ID,SEMNUM,CMD,ARG, semget KEY,NSEMS,FLAGS, semop KEY,OPSTRING, send SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS,TO, send SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS, setpgrp PID,PGRP, setpriority WHICH,WHO,PRIORITY, setsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME,OPTVAL, shift ARRAY, shift, shmctl ID,CMD,ARG, shmget KEY,SIZE,FLAGS, shmread ID,VAR,POS,SIZE, shmwrite ID,STRING,POS,SIZE, shutdown SOCKET,HOW, sin EXPR, sin, sleep EXPR, sleep, socket SOCKET,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL, socketpair SOCKET1,SOCKET2,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL, sort SUBNAME LIST, sort BLOCK LIST, sort LIST, splice ARRAY,OFFSET,LENGTH,LIST, splice ARRAY,OFFSET,LENGTH, splice ARRAY,OFFSET, splice ARRAY, split /PATTERN/,EXPR,LIMIT, split /PATTERN/,EXPR, split /PATTERN/, split, sprintf FORMAT, LIST, sqrt EXPR, sqrt, srand EXPR, srand, stat FILEHANDLE, stat EXPR, stat, study SCALAR, study, sub BLOCK, sub NAME, sub NAME BLOCK, substr EXPR,OFFSET,LENGTH,REPLACEMENT, substr EXPR,OFFSET,LENGTH, substr EXPR,OFFSET, symlink OLDFILE,NEWFILE, syscall LIST, sysopen FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE, sysopen FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE,PERMS, sysread FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, sysread FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, sysseek FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE, system LIST, system PROGRAM LIST, syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR, tell FILEHANDLE, tell, telldir DIRHANDLE, tie VARIABLE,CLASSNAME,LIST, tied VARIABLE, time, times, tr///, truncate FILEHANDLE,LENGTH, truncate EXPR,LENGTH, uc EXPR, uc, ucfirst EXPR, ucfirst, umask EXPR, umask, undef EXPR, undef, unlink LIST, unlink, unpack TEMPLATE,EXPR, untie VARIABLE, unshift ARRAY,LIST, use Module VERSION LIST, use Module VERSION, use Module LIST, use Module, use VERSION, utime LIST, values HASH, vec EXPR,OFFSET,BITS, wait, waitpid PID,FLAGS, wantarray, warn LIST, write FILEHANDLE, write EXPR, write, y///

    perlvar - Perl predefined variables

    DESCRIPTION
    Predefined Names
    $ARG, $_, $<digits>, $MATCH, $&, $PREMATCH, $`, $POSTMATCH, $', $LAST_PAREN_MATCH, $+, @+, $MULTILINE_MATCHING, $*, input_line_number HANDLE EXPR, $INPUT_LINE_NUMBER, $NR, $, input_record_separator HANDLE EXPR, $INPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR, $RS, $/, autoflush HANDLE EXPR, $OUTPUT_AUTOFLUSH, $|, output_field_separator HANDLE EXPR, $OUTPUT_FIELD_SEPARATOR, $OFS, $,, output_record_separator HANDLE EXPR, $OUTPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR, $ORS, $\, $LIST_SEPARATOR, $``, $SUBSCRIPT_SEPARATOR, $SUBSEP, $;, $OFMT, $#, format_page_number HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_PAGE_NUMBER, $%, format_lines_per_page HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_LINES_PER_PAGE, $=, format_lines_left HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_LINES_LEFT, $-, @-, $` is the same as substr($var, 0, $-[0]), $& is the same as substr($var, $-[0], $+[0] - $-[0]), $' is the same as substr($var, $+[0]), $1 is the same as substr($var, $-[1], $+[1] - $-[1]), $2 is the same as substr($var, $-[2], $+[2] - $-[2]), $3 is the same as substr $var, $-[3], $+[3] - $-[3]), format_name HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_NAME, $~, format_top_name HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_TOP_NAME, $^, format_line_break_characters HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_LINE_BREAK_CHARACTERS, $:, format_formfeed HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_FORMFEED, $^L, $ACCUMULATOR, $^A, $CHILD_ERROR, $?, $OS_ERROR, $ERRNO, $!, $EXTENDED_OS_ERROR, $^E, $EVAL_ERROR, $@, $PROCESS_ID, $PID, $$, $REAL_USER_ID, $UID, $<, $EFFECTIVE_USER_ID, $EUID, $>, $REAL_GROUP_ID, $GID, $(, $EFFECTIVE_GROUP_ID, $EGID, $), $PROGRAM_NAME, $0, $[, $], $COMPILING, $^C, $DEBUGGING, $^D, $SYSTEM_FD_MAX, $^F, $^H, %^H, $INPLACE_EDIT, $^I, $^M, $OSNAME, $^O, $PERLDB, $^P, 0x01, 0x02, 0x04, 0x08, 0x10, 0x20, 0x40, 0x80, 0x100, 0x200, $LAST_REGEXP_CODE_RESULT, $^R, $EXCEPTIONS_BEING_CAUGHT, $^S, $BASETIME, $^T, $PERL_VERSION, $^V, $WARNING, $^W, ${^WARNING_BITS}, ${^WIDE_SYSTEM_CALLS}, $EXECUTABLE_NAME, $^X, $ARGV, @ARGV, @INC, @_, %INC, %ENV, $ENV{expr}, %SIG, $SIG{expr}

    Error Indicators
    Technical Note on the Syntax of Variable Names
    BUGS

    perlsub - Perl subroutines

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Private Variables via my()
    Persistent Private Variables
    Temporary Values via local()
    Lvalue subroutines
    Passing Symbol Table Entries (typeglobs)
    When to Still Use local()
    1. You need to give a global variable a temporary value, especially $_, 2. You need to create a local file or directory handle or a local function, 3. You want to temporarily change just one element of an array or hash

    Pass by Reference
    Prototypes
    Constant Functions
    Overriding Built-in Functions
    Autoloading
    Subroutine Attributes
    SEE ALSO

    perlmod - Perl modules (packages and symbol tables)

    DESCRIPTION
    Packages
    Symbol Tables
    Package Constructors and Destructors
    Perl Classes
    Perl Modules
    SEE ALSO

    perlmodlib - constructing new Perl modules and finding existing ones

    DESCRIPTION
    THE PERL MODULE LIBRARY
    Pragmatic Modules
    attributes, attrs, autouse, base, blib, caller, charnames, constant, diagnostics, fields, filetest, integer, less, lib, locale, ops, overload, re, sigtrap, strict, subs, utf8, vars, warnings

    Standard Modules
    AnyDBM_File, AutoLoader, AutoSplit, B, B::Asmdata, B::Assembler, B::Bblock, B::Bytecode, B::C, B::CC, B::Debug, B::Deparse, B::Disassembler, B::Lint, B::Showlex, B::Stackobj, B::Terse, B::Xref, Benchmark, ByteLoader, CGI, CGI::Apache, CGI::Carp, CGI::Cookie, CGI::Fast, CGI::Pretty, CGI::Push, CGI::Switch, CPAN, CPAN::FirstTime, CPAN::Nox, Carp, Carp::Heavy, Class::Struct, Config, Cwd, DB, DB_File, Data::Dumper, Devel::DProf, Devel::Peek, Devel::SelfStubber, DirHandle, Dumpvalue, DynaLoader, English, Env, Errno, Exporter, Exporter::Heavy, ExtUtils::Command, ExtUtils::Embed, ExtUtils::Install, ExtUtils::Installed, ExtUtils::Liblist, ExtUtils::MM_Cygwin, ExtUtils::MM_OS2, ExtUtils::MM_Unix, ExtUtils::MM_VMS, ExtUtils::MM_Win32, ExtUtils::MakeMaker, ExtUtils::Manifest, ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap, ExtUtils::Mksymlists, ExtUtils::Packlist, ExtUtils::testlib, Fatal, Fcntl, File::Basename, File::CheckTree, File::Compare, File::Copy, File::DosGlob, File::Find, File::Glob, File::Path, File::Spec, File::Spec::Functions, File::Spec::Mac, File::Spec::OS2, File::Spec::Unix, File::Spec::VMS, File::Spec::Win32, File::stat, FileCache, FileHandle, FindBin, GDBM_File, Getopt::Long, Getopt::Std, I18N::Collate, IO, IO::Dir, IO::File, IO::Handle, IO::Pipe, IO::Poll, IO::Seekable, IO::Select, IO::Socket, IO::Socket::INET, IO::Socket::UNIX, IPC::Msg, IPC::Open2, IPC::Open3, IPC::Semaphore, IPC::SysV, Math::BigFloat, Math::BigInt, Math::Complex, Math::Trig, Net::Ping, Net::hostent, Net::netent, Net::protoent, Net::servent, O, Opcode, POSIX, Pod::Checker, Pod::Html, Pod::InputObjects, Pod::Man, Pod::Parser, Pod::Select, Pod::Text, Pod::Text::Color, Pod::Usage, SDBM_File, Safe, Search::Dict, SelectSaver, SelfLoader, Shell, Socket, Symbol, Sys::Hostname, Sys::Syslog, Term::Cap, Term::Complete, Term::ReadLine, Test, Test::Harness, Text::Abbrev, Text::ParseWords, Text::Soundex, Text::Wrap, Tie::Array, Tie::Handle, Tie::Hash, Tie::RefHash, Tie::Scalar, Tie::SubstrHash, Time::Local, Time::gmtime, Time::localtime, Time::tm, UNIVERSAL, User::grent, User::pwent

    Extension Modules
    CPAN
    Language Extensions and Documentation Tools, Development Support, Operating System Interfaces, Networking, Device Control (modems) and InterProcess Communication, Data Types and Data Type Utilities, Database Interfaces, User Interfaces, Interfaces to / Emulations of Other Programming Languages, File Names, File Systems and File Locking (see also File Handles), String Processing, Language Text Processing, Parsing, and Searching, Option, Argument, Parameter, and Configuration File Processing, Internationalization and Locale, Authentication, Security, and Encryption, World Wide Web, HTML, HTTP, CGI, MIME, Server and Daemon Utilities, Archiving and Compression, Images, Pixmap and Bitmap Manipulation, Drawing, and Graphing, Mail and Usenet News, Control Flow Utilities (callbacks and exceptions etc), File Handle and Input/Output Stream Utilities, Miscellaneous Modules, Africa, Asia, Australasia, Central America, Europe, North America, South America

    Modules: Creation, Use, and Abuse
    Guidelines for Module Creation
    Do similar modules already exist in some form?, Try to design the new module to be easy to extend and reuse, Some simple style guidelines, Select what to export, Select a name for the module, Have you got it right?, README and other Additional Files, A description of the module/package/extension etc, A copyright notice - see below, Prerequisites - what else you may need to have, How to build it - possible changes to Makefile.PL etc, How to install it, Recent changes in this release, especially incompatibilities, Changes / enhancements you plan to make in the future, Adding a Copyright Notice, Give the module a version/issue/release number, How to release and distribute a module, Take care when changing a released module

    Guidelines for Converting Perl 4 Library Scripts into Modules
    There is no requirement to convert anything, Consider the implications, Make the most of the opportunity, The pl2pm utility will get you started, Adds the standard Module prologue lines, Converts package specifiers from ' to ::, Converts die(...) to croak(...), Several other minor changes

    Guidelines for Reusing Application Code
    Complete applications rarely belong in the Perl Module Library, Many applications contain some Perl code that could be reused, Break-out the reusable code into one or more separate module files, Take the opportunity to reconsider and redesign the interfaces, In some cases the 'application' can then be reduced to a small

    NOTE

    perlmodinstall - Installing CPAN Modules

    DESCRIPTION
    PREAMBLE
    DECOMPRESS the file, UNPACK the file into a directory, BUILD the module (sometimes unnecessary), INSTALL the module

    HEY
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    perlfork - Perl's fork() emulation

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Behavior of other Perl features in forked pseudo-processes
    $$ or $PROCESS_ID, %ENV, chdir() and all other builtins that accept filenames, wait() and waitpid(), kill(), exec(), exit(), Open handles to files, directories and network sockets

    Resource limits
    Killing the parent process
    Lifetime of the parent process and pseudo-processes
    CAVEATS AND LIMITATIONS
    BEGIN blocks, Open filehandles, Forking pipe open() not yet implemented, Global state maintained by XSUBs, Interpreter embedded in larger application, Thread-safety of extensions

    BUGS
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    perlform - Perl formats

    DESCRIPTION
    Format Variables
    NOTES
    Footers
    Accessing Formatting Internals
    WARNINGS

    perllocale - Perl locale handling (internationalization and localization)

    DESCRIPTION
    PREPARING TO USE LOCALES
    USING LOCALES
    The use locale pragma
    The setlocale function
    Finding locales
    LOCALE PROBLEMS
    Temporarily fixing locale problems
    Permanently fixing locale problems
    Permanently fixing your system's locale configuration
    Fixing system locale configuration
    The localeconv function
    LOCALE CATEGORIES
    Category LC_COLLATE: Collation
    Category LC_CTYPE: Character Types
    Category LC_NUMERIC: Numeric Formatting
    Category LC_MONETARY: Formatting of monetary amounts
    LC_TIME
    Other categories
    SECURITY
    Comparison operators (lt, le, ge, gt and cmp):, Case-mapping interpolation (with \l, \L, \u or \U), Matching operator (m//):, Substitution operator (s///):, Output formatting functions (printf() and write()):, Case-mapping functions (lc(), lcfirst(), uc(), ucfirst()):, POSIX locale-dependent functions (localeconv(), strcoll(),strftime(), strxfrm()):, POSIX character class tests (isalnum(), isalpha(), isdigit(),isgraph(), islower(), isprint(), ispunct(), isspace(), isupper(), isxdigit()):

    ENVIRONMENT
    PERL_BADLANG, LC_ALL, LANGUAGE, LC_CTYPE, LC_COLLATE, LC_MONETARY, LC_NUMERIC, LC_TIME, LANG

    NOTES
    Backward compatibility
    I18N:Collate obsolete
    Sort speed and memory use impacts
    write() and LC_NUMERIC
    Freely available locale definitions
    I18n and l10n
    An imperfect standard
    BUGS
    Broken systems
    SEE ALSO
    HISTORY

    perlref - Perl references and nested data structures

    NOTE
    DESCRIPTION
    Making References
    Using References
    Symbolic references
    Not-so-symbolic references
    Pseudo-hashes: Using an array as a hash
    Function Templates
    WARNING
    SEE ALSO

    perlreftut - Mark's very short tutorial about references

    DESCRIPTION
    Who Needs Complicated Data Structures?
    The Solution
    Syntax
    Making References
    Using References
    An Example
    Arrow Rule
    Solution
    The Rest
    Summary
    Credits
    Distribution Conditions

    perldsc - Perl Data Structures Cookbook

    DESCRIPTION
    arrays of arrays, hashes of arrays, arrays of hashes, hashes of hashes, more elaborate constructs

    REFERENCES
    COMMON MISTAKES
    CAVEAT ON PRECEDENCE
    WHY YOU SHOULD ALWAYS use strict
    DEBUGGING
    CODE EXAMPLES
    ARRAYS OF ARRAYS
    Declaration of a ARRAY OF ARRAYS
    Generation of a ARRAY OF ARRAYS
    Access and Printing of a ARRAY OF ARRAYS
    HASHES OF ARRAYS
    Declaration of a HASH OF ARRAYS
    Generation of a HASH OF ARRAYS
    Access and Printing of a HASH OF ARRAYS
    ARRAYS OF HASHES
    Declaration of a ARRAY OF HASHES
    Generation of a ARRAY OF HASHES
    Access and Printing of a ARRAY OF HASHES
    HASHES OF HASHES
    Declaration of a HASH OF HASHES
    Generation of a HASH OF HASHES
    Access and Printing of a HASH OF HASHES
    MORE ELABORATE RECORDS
    Declaration of MORE ELABORATE RECORDS
    Declaration of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS
    Generation of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS
    Database Ties
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    perllol - Manipulating Arrays of Arrays in Perl

    DESCRIPTION
    Declaration and Access of Arrays of Arrays
    Growing Your Own
    Access and Printing
    Slices
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    perlboot - Beginner's Object-Oriented Tutorial

    DESCRIPTION
    If we could talk to the animals...
    Introducing the method invocation arrow
    Invoking a barnyard
    The extra parameter of method invocation
    Calling a second method to simplify things
    Inheriting the windpipes
    A few notes about @ISA
    Overriding the methods
    Starting the search from a different place
    The SUPER way of doing things
    Where we're at so far...
    A horse is a horse, of course of course -- or is it?
    Invoking an instance method
    Accessing the instance data
    How to build a horse
    Inheriting the constructor
    Making a method work with either classes or instances
    Adding parameters to a method
    More interesting instances
    A horse of a different color
    Summary
    SEE ALSO
    COPYRIGHT

    perltoot - Tom's object-oriented tutorial for perl

    DESCRIPTION
    Creating a Class
    Object Representation
    Class Interface
    Constructors and Instance Methods
    Planning for the Future: Better Constructors
    Destructors
    Other Object Methods
    Class Data
    Accessing Class Data
    Debugging Methods
    Class Destructors
    Documenting the Interface
    Aggregation
    Inheritance
    Overridden Methods
    Multiple Inheritance
    UNIVERSAL: The Root of All Objects
    Alternate Object Representations
    Arrays as Objects
    Closures as Objects
    AUTOLOAD: Proxy Methods
    Autoloaded Data Methods
    Inherited Autoloaded Data Methods
    Metaclassical Tools
    Class::Struct
    Data Members as Variables
    NOTES
    Object Terminology
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
    COPYRIGHT
    Acknowledgments

    perltootc - Tom's OO Tutorial for Class Data in Perl

    DESCRIPTION
    Class Data as Package Variables
    Putting All Your Eggs in One Basket
    Inheritance Concerns
    The Eponymous Meta-Object
    Indirect References to Class Data
    Monadic Classes
    Translucent Attributes
    Class Data as Lexical Variables
    Privacy and Responsibility
    File-Scoped Lexicals
    More Inheritance Concerns
    Locking the Door and Throwing Away the Key
    Translucency Revisited
    NOTES
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    HISTORY

    perlobj - Perl objects

    DESCRIPTION
    An Object is Simply a Reference
    A Class is Simply a Package
    A Method is Simply a Subroutine
    Method Invocation
    WARNING
    Default UNIVERSAL methods
    isa(CLASS), can(METHOD), VERSION( [NEED] )

    Destructors
    Summary
    Two-Phased Garbage Collection
    SEE ALSO

    perltie - how to hide an object class in a simple variable

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Tying Scalars
    TIESCALAR classname, LIST, FETCH this, STORE this, value, DESTROY this

    Tying Arrays
    TIEARRAY classname, LIST, FETCH this, index, STORE this, index, value, DESTROY this

    Tying Hashes
    USER, HOME, CLOBBER, LIST, TIEHASH classname, LIST, FETCH this, key, STORE this, key, value, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this, EXISTS this, key, FIRSTKEY this, NEXTKEY this, lastkey, DESTROY this

    Tying FileHandles
    TIEHANDLE classname, LIST, WRITE this, LIST, PRINT this, LIST, PRINTF this, LIST, READ this, LIST, READLINE this, GETC this, CLOSE this, DESTROY this

    The untie Gotcha
    SEE ALSO
    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    perlbot - Bag'o Object Tricks (the BOT)

    DESCRIPTION
    OO SCALING TIPS
    INSTANCE VARIABLES
    SCALAR INSTANCE VARIABLES
    INSTANCE VARIABLE INHERITANCE
    OBJECT RELATIONSHIPS
    OVERRIDING SUPERCLASS METHODS
    USING RELATIONSHIP WITH SDBM
    THINKING OF CODE REUSE
    CLASS CONTEXT AND THE OBJECT
    INHERITING A CONSTRUCTOR
    DELEGATION

    perlipc - Perl interprocess communication (signals, fifos, pipes, safe subprocesses, sockets, and semaphores)

    DESCRIPTION
    Signals
    Named Pipes
    WARNING
    Using open() for IPC
    Filehandles
    Background Processes
    Complete Dissociation of Child from Parent
    Safe Pipe Opens
    Bidirectional Communication with Another Process
    Bidirectional Communication with Yourself
    Sockets: Client/Server Communication
    Internet Line Terminators
    Internet TCP Clients and Servers
    Unix-Domain TCP Clients and Servers
    TCP Clients with IO::Socket
    A Simple Client
    Proto, PeerAddr, PeerPort

    A Webget Client
    Interactive Client with IO::Socket
    TCP Servers with IO::Socket
    Proto, LocalPort, Listen, Reuse

    UDP: Message Passing
    SysV IPC
    NOTES
    BUGS
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    perldbmfilter - Perl DBM Filters

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    filter_store_key, filter_store_value, filter_fetch_key, filter_fetch_value
    The Filter
    An Example -- the NULL termination problem.
    Another Example -- Key is a C int.
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    perldebug - Perl debugging

    DESCRIPTION
    The Perl Debugger
    Debugger Commands
    h [command], p expr, x expr, V [pkg [vars]], X [vars], T, s [expr], n [expr], r, <CR>, c [line|sub], l, l min+incr, l min-max, l line, l subname, -, w [line], f filename, /pattern/, ?pattern?, L, S [[!]regex], t, t expr, b [line] [condition], b subname [condition], b postpone subname [condition], b load filename, b compile subname, d [line], D, a [line] command, a [line], A, W expr, W, O booloption .., O anyoption? .., O option=value .., < ?, < [ command ], << command, > ?, > command, >> command, { ?, { [ command ], {{ command, ! number, ! -number, ! pattern, !! cmd, H -number, q or ^D, R, |dbcmd, ||dbcmd, command, m expr, man [manpage]

    Configurable Options
    recallCommand, ShellBang, pager, tkRunning, signalLevel, warnLevel, dieLevel, AutoTrace, LineInfo, inhibit_exit, PrintRet, ornaments, frame, maxTraceLen, arrayDepth, hashDepth, compactDump, veryCompact, globPrint, DumpDBFiles, DumpPackages, DumpReused, quote, HighBit, undefPrint, UsageOnly, TTY, noTTY, ReadLine, NonStop

    Debugger input/output
    Prompt, Multiline commands, Stack backtrace, Line Listing Format, Frame listing

    Debugging compile-time statements
    Debugger Customization
    Readline Support
    Editor Support for Debugging
    The Perl Profiler
    Debugging regular expressions
    Debugging memory usage
    SEE ALSO
    BUGS

    perlnumber - semantics of numbers and numeric operations in Perl

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Storing numbers
    Numeric operators and numeric conversions
    Flavors of Perl numeric operations
    Arithmetic operators except, no integer, Arithmetic operators except, use integer, Bitwise operators, no integer, Bitwise operators, use integer, Operators which expect an integer, Operators which expect a string

    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    perldebguts - Guts of Perl debugging

    DESCRIPTION
    Debugger Internals
    Writing Your Own Debugger
    Frame Listing Output Examples
    Debugging regular expressions
    Compile-time output
    anchored STRING at POS, floating STRING at POS1..POS2, matching floating/anchored, minlen, stclass TYPE, noscan, isall, GPOS, plus, implicit, with eval, anchored(TYPE)

    Types of nodes
    Run-time output
    Debugging Perl memory usage
    Using $ENV{PERL_DEBUG_MSTATS}
    buckets SMALLEST(APPROX)..GREATEST(APPROX), Free/Used, Total sbrk(): SBRKed/SBRKs:CONTINUOUS, pad: 0, heads: 2192, chain: 0, tail: 6144

    Example of using -DL switch
    717, 002, 054, 602, 702, 704

    -DL details
    !!!, !!, !

    Limitations of -DL statistics
    SEE ALSO

    perldiag - various Perl diagnostics

    DESCRIPTION

    perlsec - Perl security

    DESCRIPTION
    Laundering and Detecting Tainted Data
    Switches On the ``#!'' Line
    Cleaning Up Your Path
    Security Bugs
    Protecting Your Programs
    SEE ALSO

    perltrap - Perl traps for the unwary

    DESCRIPTION
    Awk Traps
    C Traps
    Sed Traps
    Shell Traps
    Perl Traps
    Perl4 to Perl5 Traps
    Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps, Parsing Traps, Numerical Traps, General data type traps, Context Traps - scalar, list contexts, Precedence Traps, General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc, Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps, OS Traps, DBM Traps, Unclassified Traps

    Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps
    Discontinuance, Deprecation, BugFix, Discontinuance, Discontinuance, Discontinuance, BugFix, Discontinuance, Discontinuance, BugFix, Discontinuance, Deprecation, Discontinuance

    Parsing Traps
    Parsing, Parsing, Parsing, Parsing

    Numerical Traps
    Numerical, Numerical, Numerical, Bitwise string ops

    General data type traps
    (Arrays), (Arrays), (Hashes), (Globs), (Globs), (Scalar String), (Constants), (Scalars), (Variable Suicide)

    Context Traps - scalar, list contexts
    (list context), (scalar context), (scalar context), (list, builtin)

    Precedence Traps
    Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence

    General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc.
    Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression

    Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps
    (Signals), (Sort Subroutine), warn() won't let you specify a filehandle

    OS Traps
    (SysV), (SysV)

    Interpolation Traps
    Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation

    DBM Traps
    DBM, DBM

    Unclassified Traps
    require/do trap using returned value, split on empty string with LIMIT specified

    perlport - Writing portable Perl

    DESCRIPTION
    Not all Perl programs have to be portable, Nearly all of Perl already is portable

    ISSUES
    Newlines
    Numbers endianness and Width
    Files and Filesystems
    System Interaction
    Interprocess Communication (IPC)
    External Subroutines (XS)
    Standard Modules
    Time and Date
    Character sets and character encoding
    Internationalisation
    System Resources
    Security
    Style
    CPAN Testers
    Mailing list: cpan-testers@perl.org, Testing results: http://testers.cpan.org/

    PLATFORMS
    Unix
    DOS and Derivatives
    Build instructions for OS/2, the perlos2 manpage

    Mac OS
    VMS
    VOS
    EBCDIC Platforms
    Acorn RISC OS
    Other perls
    FUNCTION IMPLEMENTATIONS
    Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions
    -X FILEHANDLE, -X EXPR, -X, alarm SECONDS, alarm, binmode FILEHANDLE, chmod LIST, chown LIST, chroot FILENAME, chroot, crypt PLAINTEXT,SALT, dbmclose HASH, dbmopen HASH,DBNAME,MODE, dump LABEL, exec LIST, fcntl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, flock FILEHANDLE,OPERATION, fork, getlogin, getpgrp PID, getppid, getpriority WHICH,WHO, getpwnam NAME, getgrnam NAME, getnetbyname NAME, getpwuid UID, getgrgid GID, getnetbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getprotobynumber NUMBER, getservbyport PORT,PROTO, getpwent, getgrent, gethostent, getnetent, getprotoent, getservent, setpwent, setgrent, sethostent STAYOPEN, setnetent STAYOPEN, setprotoent STAYOPEN, setservent STAYOPEN, endpwent, endgrent, endhostent, endnetent, endprotoent, endservent, getsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME, glob EXPR, glob, ioctl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, kill SIGNAL, LIST, link OLDFILE,NEWFILE, lstat FILEHANDLE, lstat EXPR, lstat, msgctl ID,CMD,ARG, msgget KEY,FLAGS, msgsnd ID,MSG,FLAGS, msgrcv ID,VAR,SIZE,TYPE,FLAGS, open FILEHANDLE,EXPR, open FILEHANDLE, pipe READHANDLE,WRITEHANDLE, readlink EXPR, readlink, select RBITS,WBITS,EBITS,TIMEOUT, semctl ID,SEMNUM,CMD,ARG, semget KEY,NSEMS,FLAGS, semop KEY,OPSTRING, setgrent, setpgrp PID,PGRP, setpriority WHICH,WHO,PRIORITY, setpwent, setsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME,OPTVAL, shmctl ID,CMD,ARG, shmget KEY,SIZE,FLAGS, shmread ID,VAR,POS,SIZE, shmwrite ID,STRING,POS,SIZE, socketpair SOCKET1,SOCKET2,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL, stat FILEHANDLE, stat EXPR, stat, symlink OLDFILE,NEWFILE, syscall LIST, sysopen FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE,PERMS, system LIST, times, truncate FILEHANDLE,LENGTH, truncate EXPR,LENGTH, umask EXPR, umask, utime LIST, wait, waitpid PID,FLAGS

    CHANGES
    v1.47, 22 March 2000, v1.46, 12 February 2000, v1.45, 20 December 1999, v1.44, 19 July 1999, v1.43, 24 May 1999, v1.42, 22 May 1999, v1.41, 19 May 1999, v1.40, 11 April 1999, v1.39, 11 February 1999, v1.38, 31 December 1998, v1.37, 19 December 1998, v1.36, 9 September 1998, v1.35, 13 August 1998, v1.33, 06 August 1998, v1.32, 05 August 1998, v1.30, 03 August 1998, v1.23, 10 July 1998

    Supported Platforms
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS
    VERSION

    perlstyle - Perl style guide

    DESCRIPTION

    perlpod - plain old documentation

    DESCRIPTION
    Verbatim Paragraph
    Command Paragraph
    Ordinary Block of Text
    The Intent
    Embedding Pods in Perl Modules
    Common Pod Pitfalls
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    perlbook - Perl book information

    DESCRIPTION

    perlembed - how to embed perl in your C program

    DESCRIPTION
    PREAMBLE
    Use C from Perl?, Use a Unix program from Perl?, Use Perl from Perl?, Use C from C?, Use Perl from C?

    ROADMAP
    Compiling your C program
    Adding a Perl interpreter to your C program
    Calling a Perl subroutine from your C program
    Evaluating a Perl statement from your C program
    Performing Perl pattern matches and substitutions from your C program
    Fiddling with the Perl stack from your C program
    Maintaining a persistent interpreter
    Maintaining multiple interpreter instances
    Using Perl modules, which themselves use C libraries, from your C program
    Embedding Perl under Win32
    MORAL
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    perlapio - perl's IO abstraction interface.

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    PerlIO *, PerlIO_stdin(), PerlIO_stdout(), PerlIO_stderr(), PerlIO_open(path, mode), PerlIO_fdopen(fd,mode), PerlIO_printf(f,fmt,...), PerlIO_vprintf(f,fmt,a), PerlIO_stdoutf(fmt,...), PerlIO_read(f,buf,count), PerlIO_write(f,buf,count), PerlIO_close(f), PerlIO_puts(f,s), PerlIO_putc(f,c), PerlIO_ungetc(f,c), PerlIO_getc(f), PerlIO_eof(f), PerlIO_error(f), PerlIO_fileno(f), PerlIO_clearerr(f), PerlIO_flush(f), PerlIO_tell(f), PerlIO_seek(f,o,w), PerlIO_getpos(f,p), PerlIO_setpos(f,p), PerlIO_rewind(f), PerlIO_tmpfile()
    Co-existence with stdio
    PerlIO_importFILE(f,flags), PerlIO_exportFILE(f,flags), PerlIO_findFILE(f), PerlIO_releaseFILE(p,f), PerlIO_setlinebuf(f), PerlIO_has_cntptr(f), PerlIO_get_ptr(f), PerlIO_get_cnt(f), PerlIO_canset_cnt(f), PerlIO_fast_gets(f), PerlIO_set_ptrcnt(f,p,c), PerlIO_set_cnt(f,c), PerlIO_has_base(f), PerlIO_get_base(f), PerlIO_get_bufsiz(f)

    perlxs - XS language reference manual

    DESCRIPTION
    Introduction
    On The Road
    The Anatomy of an XSUB
    The Argument Stack
    The RETVAL Variable
    The MODULE Keyword
    The PACKAGE Keyword
    The PREFIX Keyword
    The OUTPUT: Keyword
    The CODE: Keyword
    The INIT: Keyword
    The NO_INIT Keyword
    Initializing Function Parameters
    Default Parameter Values
    The PREINIT: Keyword
    The SCOPE: Keyword
    The INPUT: Keyword
    Variable-length Parameter Lists
    The C_ARGS: Keyword
    The PPCODE: Keyword
    Returning Undef And Empty Lists
    The REQUIRE: Keyword
    The CLEANUP: Keyword
    The BOOT: Keyword
    The VERSIONCHECK: Keyword
    The PROTOTYPES: Keyword
    The PROTOTYPE: Keyword
    The ALIAS: Keyword
    The INTERFACE: Keyword
    The INTERFACE_MACRO: Keyword
    The INCLUDE: Keyword
    The CASE: Keyword
    The & Unary Operator
    Inserting Comments and C Preprocessor Directives
    Using XS With C++
    Interface Strategy
    Perl Objects And C Structures
    The Typemap
    EXAMPLES
    XS VERSION
    AUTHOR

    perlxstut, perlXStut - Tutorial for writing XSUBs

    DESCRIPTION
    SPECIAL NOTES
    make
    Version caveat
    Dynamic Loading versus Static Loading
    TUTORIAL
    EXAMPLE 1
    EXAMPLE 2
    What has gone on?
    Writing good test scripts
    EXAMPLE 3
    What's new here?
    Input and Output Parameters
    The XSUBPP Program
    The TYPEMAP file
    Warning about Output Arguments
    EXAMPLE 4
    What has happened here?
    Anatomy of .xs file
    Getting the fat out of XSUBs
    More about XSUB arguments
    The Argument Stack
    Extending your Extension
    Documenting your Extension
    Installing your Extension
    EXAMPLE 5
    New Things in this Example
    EXAMPLE 6 (Coming Soon)
    EXAMPLE 7 (Coming Soon)
    EXAMPLE 8 (Coming Soon)
    EXAMPLE 9 (Coming Soon)
    Troubleshooting these Examples
    See also
    Author
    Last Changed

    perlguts - Introduction to the Perl API

    DESCRIPTION
    Variables
    Datatypes
    What is an ``IV''?
    Working with SVs
    What's Really Stored in an SV?
    Working with AVs
    Working with HVs
    Hash API Extensions
    References
    Blessed References and Class Objects
    Creating New Variables
    Reference Counts and Mortality
    Stashes and Globs
    Double-Typed SVs
    Magic Variables
    Assigning Magic
    Magic Virtual Tables
    Finding Magic
    Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays
    Localizing changes
    SAVEINT(int i), SAVEIV(IV i), SAVEI32(I32 i), SAVELONG(long i), SAVESPTR(s), SAVEPPTR(p), SAVEFREESV(SV *sv), SAVEFREEOP(OP *op), SAVEFREEPV(p), SAVECLEARSV(SV *sv), SAVEDELETE(HV *hv, char *key, I32 length), SAVEDESTRUCTOR(DESTRUCTORFUNC_NOCONTEXT_t f, void *p), SAVEDESTRUCTOR_X(DESTRUCTORFUNC_t f, void *p), SAVESTACK_POS(), SV* save_scalar(GV *gv), AV* save_ary(GV *gv), HV* save_hash(GV *gv), void save_item(SV *item), void save_list(SV **sarg, I32 maxsarg), SV* save_svref(SV **sptr), void save_aptr(AV **aptr), void save_hptr(HV **hptr)

    Subroutines
    XSUBs and the Argument Stack
    Calling Perl Routines from within C Programs
    Memory Allocation
    PerlIO
    Putting a C value on Perl stack
    Scratchpads
    Scratchpads and recursion
    Compiled code
    Code tree
    Examining the tree
    Compile pass 1: check routines
    Compile pass 1a: constant folding
    Compile pass 2: context propagation
    Compile pass 3: peephole optimization
    How multiple interpreters and concurrency are supported
    Background and PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT
    How do I use all this in extensions?
    Future Plans and PERL_IMPLICIT_SYS
    AUTHORS
    SEE ALSO

    perlcall - Perl calling conventions from C

    DESCRIPTION
    An Error Handler, An Event Driven Program

    THE CALL_ FUNCTIONS
    call_sv, call_pv, call_method, call_argv

    FLAG VALUES
    G_VOID
    G_SCALAR
    G_ARRAY
    G_DISCARD
    G_NOARGS
    G_EVAL
    G_KEEPERR
    Determining the Context
    KNOWN PROBLEMS
    EXAMPLES
    No Parameters, Nothing returned
    Passing Parameters
    Returning a Scalar
    Returning a list of values
    Returning a list in a scalar context
    Returning Data from Perl via the parameter list
    Using G_EVAL
    Using G_KEEPERR
    Using call_sv
    Using call_argv
    Using call_method
    Using GIMME_V
    Using Perl to dispose of temporaries
    Strategies for storing Callback Context Information
    1. Ignore the problem - Allow only 1 callback, 2. Create a sequence of callbacks - hard wired limit, 3. Use a parameter to map to the Perl callback

    Alternate Stack Manipulation
    Creating and calling an anonymous subroutine in C
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    DATE

    perlcompile - Introduction to the Perl Compiler-Translator

    DESCRIPTION
    Layout
    B::Bytecode, B::C, B::CC, B::Lint, B::Deparse, B::Xref

    Using The Back Ends
    The Cross Referencing Back End
    i, &, s, r

    The Decompiling Back End
    The Lint Back End
    The Simple C Back End
    The Bytecode Back End
    The Optimized C Back End
    B, O, B::Asmdata, B::Assembler, B::Bblock, B::Bytecode, B::C, B::CC, B::Debug, B::Deparse, B::Disassembler, B::Lint, B::Showlex, B::Stackobj, B::Stash, B::Terse, B::Xref

    KNOWN PROBLEMS
    AUTHOR

    perlapi - autogenerated documentation for the perl public API

    DESCRIPTION
    AvFILL, av_clear, av_extend, av_fetch, av_len, av_make, av_pop, av_push, av_shift, av_store, av_undef, av_unshift, call_argv, call_method, call_pv, call_sv, CLASS, Copy, croak, CvSTASH, dMARK, dORIGMARK, dSP, dXSARGS, dXSI32, ENTER, eval_pv, eval_sv, EXTEND, fbm_compile, fbm_instr, FREETMPS, get_av, get_cv, get_hv, get_sv, GIMME, GIMME_V, GvSV, gv_fetchmeth, gv_fetchmethod, gv_fetchmethod_autoload, gv_stashpv, gv_stashsv, G_ARRAY, G_DISCARD, G_EVAL, G_NOARGS, G_SCALAR, G_VOID, HEf_SVKEY, HeHASH, HeKEY, HeKLEN, HePV, HeSVKEY, HeSVKEY_force, HeSVKEY_set, HeVAL, HvNAME, hv_clear, hv_delete, hv_delete_ent, hv_exists, hv_exists_ent, hv_fetch, hv_fetch_ent, hv_iterinit, hv_iterkey, hv_iterkeysv, hv_iternext, hv_iternextsv, hv_iterval, hv_magic, hv_store, hv_store_ent, hv_undef, isALNUM, isALPHA, isDIGIT, isLOWER, isSPACE, isUPPER, items, ix, LEAVE, looks_like_number, MARK, mg_clear, mg_copy, mg_find, mg_free, mg_get, mg_length, mg_magical, mg_set, Move, New, newAV, Newc, newCONSTSUB, newHV, newRV_inc, newRV_noinc, NEWSV, newSViv, newSVnv, newSVpv, newSVpvf, newSVpvn, newSVrv, newSVsv, newSVuv, newXS, newXSproto, Newz, Nullav, Nullch, Nullcv, Nullhv, Nullsv, ORIGMARK, perl_alloc, perl_construct, perl_destruct, perl_free, perl_parse, perl_run, PL_DBsingle, PL_DBsub, PL_DBtrace, PL_dowarn, PL_modglobal, PL_na, PL_sv_no, PL_sv_undef, PL_sv_yes, POPi, POPl, POPn, POPp, POPs, PUSHi, PUSHMARK, PUSHn, PUSHp, PUSHs, PUSHu, PUTBACK, Renew, Renewc, require_pv, RETVAL, Safefree, savepv, savepvn, SAVETMPS, SP, SPAGAIN, ST, strEQ, strGE, strGT, strLE, strLT, strNE, strnEQ, strnNE, StructCopy, SvCUR, SvCUR_set, SvEND, SvGETMAGIC, SvGROW, SvIOK, SvIOKp, SvIOK_off, SvIOK_on, SvIOK_only, SvIV, SvIVX, SvLEN, SvNIOK, SvNIOKp, SvNIOK_off, SvNOK, SvNOKp, SvNOK_off, SvNOK_on, SvNOK_only, SvNV, SvNVX, SvOK, SvOOK, SvPOK, SvPOKp, SvPOK_off, SvPOK_on, SvPOK_only, SvPV, SvPVX, SvPV_force, SvPV_nolen, SvREFCNT, SvREFCNT_dec, SvREFCNT_inc, SvROK, SvROK_off, SvROK_on, SvRV, SvSETMAGIC, SvSetSV, SvSetSV_nosteal, SvSTASH, SvTAINT, SvTAINTED, SvTAINTED_off, SvTAINTED_on, SvTRUE, SvTYPE, svtype, SVt_IV, SVt_NV, SVt_PV, SVt_PVAV, SVt_PVCV, SVt_PVHV, SVt_PVMG, SvUPGRADE, SvUV, SvUVX, sv_2mortal, sv_bless, sv_catpv, sv_catpvf, sv_catpvf_mg, sv_catpvn, sv_catpvn_mg, sv_catpv_mg, sv_catsv, sv_catsv_mg, sv_chop, sv_cmp, sv_dec, sv_derived_from, sv_eq, sv_grow, sv_inc, sv_insert, sv_isa, sv_isobject, sv_len, sv_magic, sv_mortalcopy, sv_newmortal, sv_setiv, sv_setiv_mg, sv_setnv, sv_setnv_mg, sv_setpv, sv_setpvf, sv_setpvf_mg, sv_setpviv, sv_setpviv_mg, sv_setpvn, sv_setpvn_mg, sv_setpv_mg, sv_setref_iv, sv_setref_nv, sv_setref_pv, sv_setref_pvn, sv_setsv, sv_setsv_mg, sv_setuv, sv_setuv_mg, sv_unref, sv_upgrade, sv_usepvn, sv_usepvn_mg, sv_vcatpvfn, sv_vsetpvfn, THIS, toLOWER, toUPPER, warn, XPUSHi, XPUSHn, XPUSHp, XPUSHs, XPUSHu, XS, XSRETURN, XSRETURN_EMPTY, XSRETURN_IV, XSRETURN_NO, XSRETURN_NV, XSRETURN_PV, XSRETURN_UNDEF, XSRETURN_YES, XST_mIV, XST_mNO, XST_mNV, XST_mPV, XST_mUNDEF, XST_mYES, XS_VERSION, XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK, Zero

    AUTHORS
    SEE ALSO

    perlintern - autogenerated documentation of purely internal Perl functions

    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHORS
    SEE ALSO

    perlhist - the Perl history records

    DESCRIPTION
    INTRODUCTION
    THE KEEPERS OF THE PUMPKIN
    PUMPKIN?
    THE RECORDS
    SELECTED RELEASE SIZES
    SELECTED PATCH SIZES
    THE KEEPERS OF THE RECORDS


    PRAGMA DOCUMENTATION

    attrs - set/get attributes of a subroutine (deprecated)

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    method, locked

    re - Perl pragma to alter regular expression behaviour

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    attributes - get/set subroutine or variable attributes

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Built-in Attributes
    locked, method, lvalue

    Available Subroutines
    get, reftype

    Package-specific Attribute Handling
    FETCH_type_ATTRIBUTES, MODIFY_type_ATTRIBUTES

    Syntax of Attribute Lists
    EXPORTS
    Default exports
    Available exports
    Export tags defined
    EXAMPLES
    SEE ALSO

    attrs - set/get attributes of a subroutine (deprecated)

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    method, locked

    autouse - postpone load of modules until a function is used

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    WARNING
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    base - Establish IS-A relationship with base class at compile time

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    HISTORY
    SEE ALSO

    blib - Use MakeMaker's uninstalled version of a package

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    bytes - Perl pragma to force byte semantics rather than character semantics

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    SEE ALSO

    charnames - define character names for \N{named} string literal escape.

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CUSTOM TRANSLATORS
    BUGS

    constant - Perl pragma to declare constants

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    NOTES
    TECHNICAL NOTE
    BUGS
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    diagnostics - Perl compiler pragma to force verbose warning diagnostics

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    The diagnostics Pragma
    The splain Program
    EXAMPLES
    INTERNALS
    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    fields - compile-time class fields

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    new, phash

    SEE ALSO

    filetest - Perl pragma to control the filetest permission operators

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    subpragma access

    integer - Perl pragma to compute arithmetic in integer instead of double

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    less - perl pragma to request less of something from the compiler

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    lib - manipulate @INC at compile time

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Adding directories to @INC
    Deleting directories from @INC
    Restoring original @INC
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    locale - Perl pragma to use and avoid POSIX locales for built-in operations

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    open - perl pragma to set default disciplines for input and output

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    UNIMPLEMENTED FUNCTIONALITY
    SEE ALSO

    ops - Perl pragma to restrict unsafe operations when compiling

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    SEE ALSO

    overload - Package for overloading perl operations

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Declaration of overloaded functions
    Calling Conventions for Binary Operations
    FALSE, TRUE, undef

    Calling Conventions for Unary Operations
    Calling Conventions for Mutators
    ++ and --, x= and other assignment versions

    Overloadable Operations
    Arithmetic operations, Comparison operations, Bit operations, Increment and decrement, Transcendental functions, Boolean, string and numeric conversion, Iteration, Dereferencing, Special

    Inheritance and overloading
    Strings as values of use overload directive, Overloading of an operation is inherited by derived classes

    SPECIAL SYMBOLS FOR use overload
    Last Resort
    Fallback
    undef, TRUE, defined, but FALSE

    Copy Constructor
    Example

    MAGIC AUTOGENERATION
    Assignment forms of arithmetic operations, Conversion operations, Increment and decrement, abs($a), Unary minus, Negation, Concatenation, Comparison operations, Iterator, Dereferencing, Copy operator

    Losing overloading
    Run-time Overloading
    Public functions
    overload::StrVal(arg), overload::Overloaded(arg), overload::Method(obj,op)

    Overloading constants
    integer, float, binary, q, qr

    IMPLEMENTATION
    Metaphor clash
    Cookbook
    Two-face scalars
    Two-face references
    Symbolic calculator
    Really symbolic calculator
    AUTHOR
    DIAGNOSTICS
    BUGS

    re - Perl pragma to alter regular expression behaviour

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    sigtrap - Perl pragma to enable simple signal handling

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OPTIONS
    SIGNAL HANDLERS
    stack-trace, die, handler your-handler

    SIGNAL LISTS
    normal-signals, error-signals, old-interface-signals

    OTHER
    untrapped, any, signal, number

    EXAMPLES

    strict - Perl pragma to restrict unsafe constructs

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    strict refs, strict vars, strict subs

    subs - Perl pragma to predeclare sub names

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    utf8 - Perl pragma to enable/disable UTF-8 in source code

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    SEE ALSO

    vars - Perl pragma to predeclare global variable names (obsolete)

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    warnings - Perl pragma to control optional warnings

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    use warnings::register, warnings::enabled([$category]), warnings::warn([$category,] $message)


    MODULE DOCUMENTATION

    AnyDBM_File - provide framework for multiple DBMs

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    DBM Comparisons
    [0], [1], [2], [3]

    SEE ALSO

    AutoLoader - load subroutines only on demand

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Subroutine Stubs
    Using AutoLoader's AUTOLOAD Subroutine
    Overriding AutoLoader's AUTOLOAD Subroutine
    Package Lexicals
    AutoLoader vs. SelfLoader
    CAVEATS
    SEE ALSO

    AutoSplit - split a package for autoloading

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    $keep, $check, $modtime
    Multiple packages
    DIAGNOSTICS

    B - The Perl Compiler

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OVERVIEW OF CLASSES
    SV-RELATED CLASSES
    B::SV METHODS
    REFCNT, FLAGS

    B::IV METHODS
    IV, IVX, needs64bits, packiv

    B::NV METHODS
    NV, NVX

    B::RV METHODS
    RV

    B::PV METHODS
    PV

    B::PVMG METHODS
    MAGIC, SvSTASH

    B::MAGIC METHODS
    MOREMAGIC, PRIVATE, TYPE, FLAGS, OBJ, PTR

    B::PVLV METHODS
    TARGOFF, TARGLEN, TYPE, TARG

    B::BM METHODS
    USEFUL, PREVIOUS, RARE, TABLE

    B::GV METHODS
    is_empty, NAME, STASH, SV, IO, FORM, AV, HV, EGV, CV, CVGEN, LINE, FILE, FILEGV, GvREFCNT, FLAGS

    B::IO METHODS
    LINES, PAGE, PAGE_LEN, LINES_LEFT, TOP_NAME, TOP_GV, FMT_NAME, FMT_GV, BOTTOM_NAME, BOTTOM_GV, SUBPROCESS, IoTYPE, IoFLAGS

    B::AV METHODS
    FILL, MAX, OFF, ARRAY, AvFLAGS

    B::CV METHODS
    STASH, START, ROOT, GV, FILE, DEPTH, PADLIST, OUTSIDE, XSUB, XSUBANY, CvFLAGS

    B::HV METHODS
    FILL, MAX, KEYS, RITER, NAME, PMROOT, ARRAY

    OP-RELATED CLASSES
    B::OP METHODS
    next, sibling, name, ppaddr, desc, targ, type, seq, flags, private

    B::UNOP METHOD
    first

    B::BINOP METHOD
    last

    B::LOGOP METHOD
    other

    B::LISTOP METHOD
    children

    B::PMOP METHODS
    pmreplroot, pmreplstart, pmnext, pmregexp, pmflags, pmpermflags, precomp

    B::SVOP METHOD
    sv, gv

    B::PADOP METHOD
    padix

    B::PVOP METHOD
    pv

    B::LOOP METHODS
    redoop, nextop, lastop

    B::COP METHODS
    label, stash, file, cop_seq, arybase, line

    FUNCTIONS EXPORTED BY B
    main_cv, init_av, main_root, main_start, comppadlist, sv_undef, sv_yes, sv_no, amagic_generation, walkoptree(OP, METHOD), walkoptree_debug(DEBUG), walksymtable(SYMREF, METHOD, RECURSE), svref_2object(SV), ppname(OPNUM), hash(STR), cast_I32(I), minus_c, cstring(STR), class(OBJ), threadsv_names

    AUTHOR

    B::Asmdata - Autogenerated data about Perl ops, used to generate bytecode

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR

    B::Assembler - Assemble Perl bytecode

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR

    B::Bblock - Walk basic blocks

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR

    B::Bytecode - Perl compiler's bytecode backend

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OPTIONS
    -ofilename, -afilename, --, -f, -fcompress-nullops, -fomit-sequence-numbers, -fbypass-nullops, -fstrip-syntax-tree, -On, -D, -Do, -Db, -Da, -DC, -S, -m

    EXAMPLES
    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    B::C - Perl compiler's C backend

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OPTIONS
    -ofilename, -v, --, -uPackname, -D, -Do, -Dc, -DA, -DC, -DM, -f, -fcog, -fno-cog, -On, -llimit

    EXAMPLES
    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    B::CC - Perl compiler's optimized C translation backend

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OPTIONS
    -ofilename, -v, --, -uPackname, -mModulename, -D, -Dr, -DO, -Ds, -Dp, -Dq, -Dl, -Dt, -f, -ffreetmps-each-bblock, -ffreetmps-each-loop, -fomit-taint, -On

    EXAMPLES
    BUGS
    DIFFERENCES
    Loops
    Context of ``..''
    Arithmetic
    Deprecated features
    AUTHOR

    B::Debug - Walk Perl syntax tree, printing debug info about ops

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR

    B::Deparse - Perl compiler backend to produce perl code

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OPTIONS
    -l, -p, -q, -uPACKAGE, -sLETTERS, C, iNUMBER, T, vSTRING.

    USING B::Deparse AS A MODULE
    Synopsis
    Description
    new
    coderef2text
    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    B::Disassembler - Disassemble Perl bytecode

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR

    B::Lint - Perl lint

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OPTIONS AND LINT CHECKS
    context, implicit-read and implicit-write, dollar-underscore, private-names, undefined-subs, regexp-variables, all, none

    NON LINT-CHECK OPTIONS
    -u Package

    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    B::O, O - Generic interface to Perl Compiler backends

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONVENTIONS
    IMPLEMENTATION
    AUTHOR

    B::Showlex - Show lexical variables used in functions or files

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR

    B::Stackobj - Helper module for CC backend

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR

    B::Terse - Walk Perl syntax tree, printing terse info about ops

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR

    B::Xref - Generates cross reference reports for Perl programs

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OPTIONS
    -oFILENAME, -r, -D[tO]

    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    Bblock, B::Bblock - Walk basic blocks

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR

    Benchmark - benchmark running times of Perl code

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Methods
    new, debug, iters

    Standard Exports
    timeit(COUNT, CODE), timethis ( COUNT, CODE, [ TITLE, [ STYLE ]] ), timethese ( COUNT, CODEHASHREF, [ STYLE ] ), timediff ( T1, T2 ), timestr ( TIMEDIFF, [ STYLE, [ FORMAT ] ] )

    Optional Exports
    clearcache ( COUNT ), clearallcache ( ), cmpthese ( COUT, CODEHASHREF, [ STYLE ] ), cmpthese ( RESULTSHASHREF ), countit(TIME, CODE), disablecache ( ), enablecache ( ), timesum ( T1, T2 )

    NOTES
    EXAMPLES
    INHERITANCE
    CAVEATS
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHORS
    MODIFICATION HISTORY

    ByteLoader - load byte compiled perl code

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    Bytecode, B::Bytecode - Perl compiler's bytecode backend

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OPTIONS
    -ofilename, -afilename, --, -f, -fcompress-nullops, -fomit-sequence-numbers, -fbypass-nullops, -fstrip-syntax-tree, -On, -D, -Do, -Db, -Da, -DC, -S, -m

    EXAMPLES
    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    CGI - Simple Common Gateway Interface Class

    SYNOPSIS
    ABSTRACT
    DESCRIPTION
    PROGRAMMING STYLE
    CALLING CGI.PM ROUTINES
    1. Use another name for the argument, if one is available. Forexample, -value is an alias for -values, 2. Change the capitalization, e.g. -Values, 3. Put quotes around the argument name, e.g. '-values'

    CREATING A NEW QUERY OBJECT (OBJECT-ORIENTED STYLE):
    CREATING A NEW QUERY OBJECT FROM AN INPUT FILE
    FETCHING A LIST OF KEYWORDS FROM THE QUERY:
    FETCHING THE NAMES OF ALL THE PARAMETERS PASSED TO YOUR SCRIPT:
    FETCHING THE VALUE OR VALUES OF A SINGLE NAMED PARAMETER:
    SETTING THE VALUE(S) OF A NAMED PARAMETER:
    APPENDING ADDITIONAL VALUES TO A NAMED PARAMETER:
    IMPORTING ALL PARAMETERS INTO A NAMESPACE:
    DELETING A PARAMETER COMPLETELY:
    DELETING ALL PARAMETERS:
    DIRECT ACCESS TO THE PARAMETER LIST:
    FETCHING THE PARAMETER LIST AS A HASH:
    SAVING THE STATE OF THE SCRIPT TO A FILE:
    RETRIEVING CGI ERRORS
    USING THE FUNCTION-ORIENTED INTERFACE
    :cgi, :form, :html2, :html3, :netscape, :html, :standard, :all

    PRAGMAS
    -any, -compile, -nph, -newstyle_urls, -autoload, -no_debug, -private_tempfiles

    SPECIAL FORMS FOR IMPORTING HTML-TAG FUNCTIONS
    1. start_table() (generates a <TABLE> tag), 2. end_table() (generates a </TABLE> tag), 3. start_ul() (generates a <UL> tag), 4. end_ul() (generates a </UL> tag)

    GENERATING DYNAMIC DOCUMENTS
    CREATING A STANDARD HTTP HEADER:
    GENERATING A REDIRECTION HEADER
    CREATING THE HTML DOCUMENT HEADER
    Parameters:, 4, 5, 6..

    ENDING THE HTML DOCUMENT:
    CREATING A SELF-REFERENCING URL THAT PRESERVES STATE INFORMATION:
    OBTAINING THE SCRIPT'S URL
    -absolute, -relative, -full, -path (-path_info), -query (-query_string)

    MIXING POST AND URL PARAMETERS
    CREATING STANDARD HTML ELEMENTS:
    PROVIDING ARGUMENTS TO HTML SHORTCUTS
    THE DISTRIBUTIVE PROPERTY OF HTML SHORTCUTS
    HTML SHORTCUTS AND LIST INTERPOLATION
    NON-STANDARD HTML SHORTCUTS
    PRETTY-PRINTING HTML
    CREATING FILL-OUT FORMS:
    CREATING AN ISINDEX TAG
    STARTING AND ENDING A FORM
    application/x-www-form-urlencoded, multipart/form-data

    CREATING A TEXT FIELD
    Parameters

    CREATING A BIG TEXT FIELD
    CREATING A PASSWORD FIELD
    CREATING A FILE UPLOAD FIELD
    Parameters

    CREATING A POPUP MENU
    CREATING A SCROLLING LIST
    Parameters:

    CREATING A GROUP OF RELATED CHECKBOXES
    Parameters:

    CREATING A STANDALONE CHECKBOX
    Parameters:

    CREATING A RADIO BUTTON GROUP
    Parameters:

    CREATING A SUBMIT BUTTON
    Parameters:

    CREATING A RESET BUTTON
    CREATING A DEFAULT BUTTON
    CREATING A HIDDEN FIELD
    Parameters:

    CREATING A CLICKABLE IMAGE BUTTON
    Parameters:, 3.The third option (-align, optional) is an alignment type, and may be TOP, BOTTOM or MIDDLE

    CREATING A JAVASCRIPT ACTION BUTTON
    HTTP COOKIES
    1. an expiration time, 2. a domain, 3. a path, 4. a ``secure'' flag, -name, -value, -path, -domain, -expires, -secure

    WORKING WITH FRAMES
    1. Create a <Frameset> document, 2. Specify the destination for the document in the HTTP header, 3. Specify the destination for the document in the <FORM> tag

    LIMITED SUPPORT FOR CASCADING STYLE SHEETS
    DEBUGGING
    DUMPING OUT ALL THE NAME/VALUE PAIRS
    FETCHING ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
    Accept(), raw_cookie(), user_agent(), path_info(), path_translated(), remote_host(), script_name()Return the script name as a partial URL, for self-refering scripts, referer(), auth_type (), server_name (), virtual_host (), server_software (), remote_user (), user_name (), request_method(), content_type(), http(), https()

    USING NPH SCRIPTS
    In the use statement, By calling the nph() method:, By using -nph parameters in the header() and redirect() statements:

    Server Push
    multipart_init(), multipart_start(), multipart_end()

    Avoiding Denial of Service Attacks
    $CGI::POST_MAX, $CGI::DISABLE_UPLOADS, 1. On a script-by-script basis, 2. Globally for all scripts

    COMPATIBILITY WITH CGI-LIB.PL
    AUTHOR INFORMATION
    CREDITS
    Matt Heffron (heffron@falstaff.css.beckman.com), James Taylor (james.taylor@srs.gov), Scott Anguish <sanguish@digifix.com>, Mike Jewell (mlj3u@virginia.edu), Timothy Shimmin (tes@kbs.citri.edu.au), Joergen Haegg (jh@axis.se), Laurent Delfosse (delfosse@delfosse.com), Richard Resnick (applepi1@aol.com), Craig Bishop (csb@barwonwater.vic.gov.au), Tony Curtis (tc@vcpc.univie.ac.at), Tim Bunce (Tim.Bunce@ig.co.uk), Tom Christiansen (tchrist@convex.com), Andreas Koenig (k@franz.ww.TU-Berlin.DE), Tim MacKenzie (Tim.MacKenzie@fulcrum.com.au), Kevin B. Hendricks (kbhend@dogwood.tyler.wm.edu), Stephen Dahmen (joyfire@inxpress.net), Ed Jordan (ed@fidalgo.net), David Alan Pisoni (david@cnation.com), Doug MacEachern (dougm@opengroup.org), Robin Houston (robin@oneworld.org), ...and many many more..

    A COMPLETE EXAMPLE OF A SIMPLE FORM-BASED SCRIPT
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO

    CGI::Apache - Backward compatibility module for CGI.pm

    SYNOPSIS
    ABSTRACT
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR INFORMATION
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO

    CGI::Carp, CGI::Carp - CGI routines for writing to the HTTPD (or other) error log

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    REDIRECTING ERROR MESSAGES
    MAKING PERL ERRORS APPEAR IN THE BROWSER WINDOW
    Changing the default message
    CHANGE LOG
    AUTHORS
    SEE ALSO

    CGI::Cookie - Interface to Netscape Cookies

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    USING CGI::Cookie
    1. expiration date, 2. domain, 3. path, 4. secure flag
    Creating New Cookies
    Sending the Cookie to the Browser
    Recovering Previous Cookies
    Manipulating Cookies
    name(), value(), domain(), path(), expires()

    AUTHOR INFORMATION
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO

    CGI::Fast - CGI Interface for Fast CGI

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OTHER PIECES OF THE PUZZLE
    WRITING FASTCGI PERL SCRIPTS
    INSTALLING FASTCGI SCRIPTS
    USING FASTCGI SCRIPTS AS CGI SCRIPTS
    CAVEATS
    AUTHOR INFORMATION
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO

    CGI::Pretty - module to produce nicely formatted HTML code

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Tags that won't be formatted
    Customizing the Indenting
    BUGS
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    CGI::Push - Simple Interface to Server Push

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    USING CGI::Push
    -next_page, -last_page, -type, -delay, -cookie, -target, -expires
    Heterogeneous Pages
    Changing the Page Delay on the Fly
    INSTALLING CGI::Push SCRIPTS
    AUTHOR INFORMATION
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO

    CGI::Switch - Backward compatibility module for defunct CGI::Switch

    SYNOPSIS
    ABSTRACT
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR INFORMATION
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO

    CPAN - query, download and build perl modules from CPAN sites

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Interactive Mode
    Searching for authors, bundles, distribution files and modules, make, test, install, clean modules or distributions, get, readme, look module or distribution, Signals

    CPAN::Shell
    autobundle
    recompile
    The four CPAN::* Classes: Author, Bundle, Module, Distribution
    Programmer&39;s interface
    expand($type,@things), Programming Examples

    Methods in the four Classes
    Cache Manager
    Bundles
    Prerequisites
    Finding packages and VERSION
    Debugging
    Floppy, Zip, Offline Mode
    CONFIGURATION
    o conf <scalar option>, o conf <scalar option> E<lt>valueE<gt>, o conf <list option>, o conf <list optionE<gt> [shift|pop], o conf <list option> [unshift|push|splice] E<lt>listE<gt>
    Note on urllist parameter's format
    urllist parameter has CD-ROM support
    SECURITY
    EXPORT
    POPULATE AN INSTALLATION WITH LOTS OF MODULES
    WORKING WITH CPAN.pm BEHIND FIREWALLS
    http firewall, ftp firewall, One way visibility, SOCKS, IP Masquerade

    BUGS
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    CPAN::FirstTime - Utility for CPAN::Config file Initialization

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    CPANox, CPAN::Nox - Wrapper around CPAN.pm without using any XS module

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    SEE ALSO

    Carp, carp - warn of errors (from perspective of caller)

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Forcing a Stack Trace
    BUGS

    Carp::Heavy - Carp guts

    SYNOPIS
    DESCRIPTION

    Class::Struct - declare struct-like datatypes as Perl classes

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    The struct() function
    Element Types and Accessor Methods
    Scalar ('$' or '*$'), Array ('@' or '*@'), Hash ('%' or '*%'), Class ('Class_Name' or '*Class_Name')

    Initializing with new
    EXAMPLES
    Example 1, Example 2, Example 3

    Author and Modification History

    Config - access Perl configuration information

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    myconfig(), config_sh(), config_vars(@names)

    EXAMPLE
    WARNING
    GLOSSARY
    _
    _a, _exe, _o

    a
    afs, alignbytes, ansi2knr, aphostname, api_revision, api_subversion, api_version, api_versionstring, ar, archlib, archlibexp, archname64, archname, archobjs, awk

    b
    baserev, bash, bin, bincompat5005, binexp, bison, byacc, byteorder

    c
    c, castflags, cat, cc, cccdlflags, ccdlflags, ccflags, ccsymbols, cf_by, cf_email, cf_time, charsize, chgrp, chmod, chown, clocktype, comm, compress

    C
    CONFIGDOTSH, contains, cp, cpio, cpp, cpp_stuff, cppccsymbols, cppflags, cpplast, cppminus, cpprun, cppstdin, cppsymbols, crosscompile, cryptlib, csh

    d
    d_access, d_accessx, d_alarm, d_archlib, d_atolf, d_atoll, d_attribut, d_bcmp, d_bcopy, d_bincompat5005, d_bsd, d_bsdgetpgrp, d_bsdsetpgrp, d_bzero, d_casti32, d_castneg, d_charvspr, d_chown, d_chroot, d_chsize, d_closedir, d_const, d_crypt, d_csh, d_cuserid, d_dbl_dig, d_difftime, d_dirnamlen, d_dlerror, d_dlopen, d_dlsymun, d_dosuid, d_drand48proto, d_dup2, d_eaccess, d_endgrent, d_endhent, d_endnent, d_endpent, d_endpwent, d_endsent, d_endspent, d_eofnblk, d_eunice, d_fchmod, d_fchown, d_fcntl, d_fd_macros, d_fd_set, d_fds_bits, d_fgetpos, d_flexfnam, d_flock, d_fork, d_fpathconf, d_fpos64_t, d_fs_data_s, d_fseeko, d_fsetpos, d_fstatfs, d_fstatvfs, d_ftello, d_ftime, d_Gconvert, d_getcwd, d_getfsstat, d_getgrent, d_getgrps, d_gethbyaddr, d_gethbyname, d_gethent, d_gethname, d_gethostprotos, d_getlogin, d_getmnt, d_getmntent, d_getnbyaddr, d_getnbyname, d_getnent, d_getnetprotos, d_getpbyname, d_getpbynumber, d_getpent, d_getpgid, d_getpgrp2, d_getpgrp, d_getppid, d_getprior, d_getprotoprotos, d_getpwent, d_getsbyname, d_getsbyport, d_getsent, d_getservprotos, d_getspent, d_getspnam, d_gettimeod, d_gnulibc, d_grpasswd, d_hasmntopt, d_htonl, d_iconv, d_index, d_inetaton, d_int64_t, d_isascii, d_killpg, d_lchown, d_ldbl_dig, d_link, d_locconv, d_lockf, d_longdbl, d_longlong, d_lseekproto, d_lstat, d_madvise, d_mblen, d_mbstowcs, d_mbtowc, d_memchr, d_memcmp, d_memcpy, d_memmove, d_memset, d_mkdir, d_mkdtemp, d_mkfifo, d_mkstemp, d_mkstemps, d_mktime, d_mmap, d_mprotect, d_msg, d_msg_ctrunc, d_msg_dontroute, d_msg_oob, d_msg_peek, d_msg_proxy, d_msgctl, d_msgget, d_msgrcv, d_msgsnd, d_msync, d_munmap, d_mymalloc, d_nice, d_nv_preserves_uv, d_off64_t, d_old_pthread_create_joinable, d_oldpthreads, d_oldsock, d_open3, d_pathconf, d_pause, d_phostname, d_pipe, d_poll, d_portable, d_PRId64, d_PRIeldbl, d_PRIEldbl, d_PRIfldbl, d_PRIFldbl, d_PRIgldbl, d_PRIGldbl, d_PRIi64, d_PRIo64, d_PRIu64, d_PRIx64, d_PRIX64, d_pthread_yield, d_pwage, d_pwchange, d_pwclass, d_pwcomment, d_pwexpire, d_pwgecos, d_pwpasswd, d_pwquota, d_qgcvt, d_quad, d_readdir, d_readlink, d_rename, d_rewinddir, d_rmdir, d_safebcpy, d_safemcpy, d_sanemcmp, d_sched_yield, d_scm_rights, d_seekdir, d_select, d_sem, d_semctl, d_semctl_semid_ds, d_semctl_semun, d_semget, d_semop, d_setegid, d_seteuid, d_setgrent, d_setgrps, d_sethent, d_setlinebuf, d_setlocale, d_setnent, d_setpent, d_setpgid, d_setpgrp2, d_setpgrp, d_setprior, d_setpwent, d_setregid, d_setresgid, d_setresuid, d_setreuid, d_setrgid, d_setruid, d_setsent, d_setsid, d_setspent, d_setvbuf, d_sfio, d_shm, d_shmat, d_shmatprototype, d_shmctl, d_shmdt, d_shmget, d_sigaction, d_sigsetjmp, d_socket, d_socklen_t, d_sockpair, d_sqrtl, d_statblks, d_statfs_f_flags, d_statfs_s, d_statvfs, d_stdio_cnt_lval, d_stdio_ptr_lval, d_stdio_stream_array, d_stdiobase, d_stdstdio, d_strchr, d_strcoll, d_strctcpy, d_strerrm, d_strerror, d_strtod, d_strtol, d_strtold, d_strtoll, d_strtoul, d_strtoull, d_strtouq, d_strxfrm, d_suidsafe, d_symlink, d_syscall, d_sysconf, d_sysernlst, d_syserrlst, d_system, d_tcgetpgrp, d_tcsetpgrp, d_telldir, d_telldirproto, d_time, d_times, d_truncate, d_tzname, d_umask, d_uname, d_union_semun, d_ustat, d_vendorarch, d_vendorbin, d_vendorlib, d_vfork, d_void_closedir, d_voidsig, d_voidtty, d_volatile, d_vprintf, d_wait4, d_waitpid, d_wcstombs, d_wctomb, d_xenix, date, db_hashtype, db_prefixtype, defvoidused, direntrytype, dlext, dlsrc, doublesize, drand01, dynamic_ext

    e
    eagain, ebcdic, echo, egrep, emacs, eunicefix, exe_ext, expr, extensions

    f
    fflushall, fflushNULL, find, firstmakefile, flex, fpossize, fpostype, freetype, full_ar, full_csh, full_sed

    g
    gccversion, gidformat, gidsign, gidsize, gidtype, glibpth, grep, groupcat, groupstype, gzip

    h
    h_fcntl, h_sysfile, hint, hostcat, huge

    i
    i16size, i16type, i32size, i32type, i64size, i64type, i8size, i8type, i_arpainet, i_bsdioctl, i_db, i_dbm, i_dirent, i_dld, i_dlfcn, i_fcntl, i_float, i_gdbm, i_grp, i_iconv, i_ieeefp, i_inttypes, i_limits, i_locale, i_machcthr, i_malloc, i_math, i_memory, i_mntent, i_ndbm, i_netdb, i_neterrno, i_netinettcp, i_niin, i_poll, i_pthread, i_pwd, i_rpcsvcdbm, i_sfio, i_sgtty, i_shadow, i_socks, i_stdarg, i_stddef, i_stdlib, i_string, i_sunmath, i_sysaccess, i_sysdir, i_sysfile, i_sysfilio, i_sysin, i_sysioctl, i_syslog, i_sysmman, i_sysmode, i_sysmount, i_sysndir, i_sysparam, i_sysresrc, i_syssecrt, i_sysselct, i_syssockio, i_sysstat, i_sysstatfs, i_sysstatvfs, i_systime, i_systimek, i_systimes, i_systypes, i_sysuio, i_sysun, i_sysutsname, i_sysvfs, i_syswait, i_termio, i_termios, i_time, i_unistd, i_ustat, i_utime, i_values, i_varargs, i_varhdr, i_vfork, ignore_versioned_solibs, inc_version_list, inc_version_list_init, incpath, inews, installarchlib, installbin, installman1dir, installman3dir, installprefix, installprefixexp, installprivlib, installscript, installsitearch, installsitebin, installsitelib, installstyle, installusrbinperl, installvendorarch, installvendorbin, installvendorlib, intsize, ivdformat, ivsize, ivtype

    k
    known_extensions, ksh

    l
    large, ld, lddlflags, ldflags, ldlibpthname, less, lib_ext, libc, libperl, libpth, libs, libsdirs, libsfiles, libsfound, libspath, libswanted, line, lint, lkflags, ln, lns, locincpth, loclibpth, longdblsize, longlongsize, longsize, lp, lpr, ls, lseeksize, lseektype

    m
    mail, mailx, make, make_set_make, mallocobj, mallocsrc, malloctype, man1dir, man1direxp, man1ext, man3dir, man3direxp, man3ext

    M
    Mcc, medium, mips_type, mkdir, mmaptype, models, modetype, more, multiarch, mv, myarchname, mydomain, myhostname, myuname

    n
    n, netdb_hlen_type, netdb_host_type, netdb_name_type, netdb_net_type, nm, nm_opt, nm_so_opt, nonxs_ext, nroff, nvsize, nvtype

    o
    o_nonblock, obj_ext, old_pthread_create_joinable, optimize, orderlib, osname, osvers

    p
    package, pager, passcat, patchlevel, path_sep, perl5, perl

    P
    PERL_REVISION, PERL_SUBVERSION, PERL_VERSION, perladmin, perlpath, pg, phostname, pidtype, plibpth, pm_apiversion, pmake, pr, prefix, prefixexp, privlib, privlibexp, prototype, ptrsize

    q
    quadkind, quadtype

    r
    randbits, randfunc, randseedtype, ranlib, rd_nodata, revision, rm, rmail, runnm

    s
    sched_yield, scriptdir, scriptdirexp, sed, seedfunc, selectminbits, selecttype, sendmail, sh, shar, sharpbang, shmattype, shortsize, shrpenv, shsharp, sig_count, sig_name, sig_name_init, sig_num, sig_num_init, signal_t, sitearch, sitearchexp, sitebin, sitebinexp, sitelib, sitelib_stem, sitelibexp, siteprefix, siteprefixexp, sizesize, sizetype, sleep, smail, small, so, sockethdr, socketlib, socksizetype, sort, spackage, spitshell, split, sPRId64, sPRIeldbl, sPRIEldbl, sPRIfldbl, sPRIFldbl, sPRIgldbl, sPRIGldbl, sPRIi64, sPRIo64, sPRIu64, sPRIx64, sPRIX64, src, ssizetype, startperl, startsh, static_ext, stdchar, stdio_base, stdio_bufsiz, stdio_cnt, stdio_filbuf, stdio_ptr, stdio_stream_array, strings, submit, subversion, sysman

    t
    tail, tar, tbl, tee, test, timeincl, timetype, touch, tr, trnl, troff

    u
    u16size, u16type, u32size, u32type, u64size, u64type, u8size, u8type, uidformat, uidsign, uidsize, uidtype, uname, uniq, uquadtype, use5005threads, use64bitall, use64bitint, usedl, useithreads, uselargefiles, uselongdouble, usemorebits, usemultiplicity, usemymalloc, usenm, useopcode, useperlio, useposix, usesfio, useshrplib, usesocks, usethreads, usevendorprefix, usevfork, usrinc, uuname, uvoformat, uvsize, uvtype, uvuformat, uvxformat

    v
    vendorarch, vendorarchexp, vendorbin, vendorbinexp, vendorlib, vendorlib_stem, vendorlibexp, vendorprefix, vendorprefixexp, version, vi, voidflags

    x
    xlibpth, xs_apiversion

    z
    zcat, zip

    NOTE

    Cwd, getcwd - get pathname of current working directory

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    DB - programmatic interface to the Perl debugging API (draft, subject to change)

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Global Variables
     $DB::sub,  %DB::sub,  $DB::single,  $DB::signal,  $DB::trace,  @DB::args, 
    @DB::dbline,  %DB::dbline,  $DB::package,  $DB::filename,  $DB::subname, 
    $DB::lineno
    API Methods
    CLIENT->register(), CLIENT->evalcode(STRING), CLIENT->skippkg('D::hide'), CLIENT->run(), CLIENT->step(), CLIENT->next(), CLIENT->done()

    Client Callback Methods
    CLIENT->init(), CLIENT->prestop([STRING]), CLIENT->stop(), CLIENT->idle(), CLIENT->poststop([STRING]), CLIENT->evalcode(STRING), CLIENT->cleanup(), CLIENT->output(LIST)

    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    DB_File - Perl5 access to Berkeley DB version 1.x

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    DB_HASH, DB_BTREE, DB_RECNO
    Using DB_File with Berkeley DB version 2 or 3
    Interface to Berkeley DB
    Opening a Berkeley DB Database File
    Default Parameters
    In Memory Databases
    DB_HASH
    A Simple Example
    DB_BTREE
    Changing the BTREE sort order
    Handling Duplicate Keys
    The get_dup() Method
    The find_dup() Method
    The del_dup() Method
    Matching Partial Keys
    DB_RECNO
    The 'bval' Option
    A Simple Example
    Extra RECNO Methods
    $X->push(list) ;, $value = $X->pop ;, $X->shift, $X->unshift(list) ;, $X->length

    Another Example
    THE API INTERFACE
    $status = $X->get($key, $value [, $flags]) ;, $status = $X->put($key, $value [, $flags]) ;, $status = $X->del($key [, $flags]) ;, $status = $X->fd ;, $status = $X->seq($key, $value, $flags) ;, $status = $X->sync([$flags]) ;

    DBM FILTERS
    filter_store_key, filter_store_value, filter_fetch_key, filter_fetch_value
    The Filter
    An Example -- the NULL termination problem.
    Another Example -- Key is a C int.
    HINTS AND TIPS
    Locking: The Trouble with fd
    Safe ways to lock a database
    Tie::DB_Lock, Tie::DB_LockFile, DB_File::Lock

    Sharing Databases With C Applications
    The untie() Gotcha
    COMMON QUESTIONS
    Why is there Perl source in my database?
    How do I store complex data structures with DB_File?
    What does ``Invalid Argument'' mean?
    What does ``Bareword 'DB_File' not allowed'' mean?
    REFERENCES
    HISTORY
    BUGS
    AVAILABILITY
    COPYRIGHT
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    Data::Dumper - stringified perl data structures, suitable for both printing and eval

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Methods
    PACKAGE->new(ARRAYREF [, ARRAYREF]), $OBJ->Dump or PACKAGE->Dump(ARRAYREF [, ARRAYREF]), $OBJ->Seen([HASHREF]), $OBJ->Values([ARRAYREF]), $OBJ->Names([ARRAYREF]), $OBJ->Reset

    Functions
    Dumper(LIST)

    Configuration Variables or Methods
    $Data::Dumper::Indent or $OBJ->Indent([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Purity or $OBJ->Purity([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Pad or $OBJ->Pad([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Varname or $OBJ->Varname([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Useqq or $OBJ->Useqq([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Terse or $OBJ->Terse([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Freezer or $OBJ->Freezer([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Toaster or $OBJ->Toaster([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Deepcopy or $OBJ->Deepcopy([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Quotekeys or $OBJ->Quotekeys([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Bless or $OBJ->Bless([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Maxdepth or $OBJ->Maxdepth([NEWVAL])

    Exports
    Dumper

    EXAMPLES
    BUGS
    AUTHOR
    VERSION
    SEE ALSO

    Devel::DProf - a Perl code profiler

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    PROFILE FORMAT
    AUTOLOAD
    ENVIRONMENT
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO

    Devel::Peek - A data debugging tool for the XS programmer

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXAMPLES
    A simple scalar string
    A simple scalar number
    A simple scalar with an extra reference
    A reference to a simple scalar
    A reference to an array
    A reference to a hash
    Dumping a large array or hash
    A reference to an SV which holds a C pointer
    A reference to a subroutine
    EXPORTS
    BUGS
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    Devel::SelfStubber - generate stubs for a SelfLoading module

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    DirHandle - supply object methods for directory handles

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    Dumpvalue - provides screen dump of Perl data.

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Creation
    arrayDepth, hashDepth, compactDump, veryCompact, globPrint, DumpDBFiles, DumpPackages, DumpReused, tick, HighBit, printUndef, UsageOnly, unctrl, subdump, bareStringify, quoteHighBit, stopDbSignal

    Methods
    dumpValue, dumpValues, dumpvars, set_quote, set_unctrl, compactDump, veryCompact, set, get

    DynaLoader - Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    @dl_library_path, @dl_resolve_using, @dl_require_symbols, @dl_librefs, @dl_modules, dl_error(), $dl_debug, dl_findfile(), dl_expandspec(), dl_load_file(), dl_unload_file(), dl_loadflags(), dl_find_symbol(), dl_find_symbol_anywhere(), dl_undef_symbols(), dl_install_xsub(), bootstrap()

    AUTHOR

    DynaLoader::XSLoader, XSLoader - Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR

    English - use nice English (or awk) names for ugly punctuation variables

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    BUGS

    Env - perl module that imports environment variables as scalars or arrays

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    LIMITATIONS
    AUTHOR

    Errno - System errno constants

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CAVEATS
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    Exporter - Implements default import method for modules

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    How to Export
    Selecting What To Export
    Specialised Import Lists
    Exporting without using Export's import method
    Module Version Checking
    Managing Unknown Symbols
    Tag Handling Utility Functions

    Exporter::Heavy - Exporter guts

    SYNOPIS
    DESCRIPTION

    ExtUtils::Command - utilities to replace common UNIX commands in Makefiles etc.

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    cat

    eqtime src dst

    rm_f files...

    rm_f files...

    touch files ..

    mv source... destination

    cp source... destination

    chmod mode files..

    mkpath directory..

    test_f file

    BUGS
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    ExtUtils::Embed - Utilities for embedding Perl in C/C++ applications

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    @EXPORT
    FUNCTIONS
    xsinit(), Examples, ldopts(), Examples, perl_inc(), ccflags(), ccdlflags(), ccopts(), xsi_header(), xsi_protos(@modules), xsi_body(@modules)

    EXAMPLES
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    ExtUtils::Install - install files from here to there

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    ExtUtils::Installed - Inventory management of installed modules

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    USAGE
    FUNCTIONS
    new(), modules(), files(), directories(), directory_tree(), validate(), packlist(), version()

    EXAMPLE
    AUTHOR

    ExtUtils::Liblist - determine libraries to use and how to use them

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    For static extensions, For dynamic extensions, For dynamic extensions
    EXTRALIBS
    LDLOADLIBS and LD_RUN_PATH
    BSLOADLIBS
    PORTABILITY
    VMS implementation
    Win32 implementation
    SEE ALSO

    ExtUtils::MM_Cygwin - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    canonpath, cflags, manifypods, perl_archive

    ExtUtils::MM_OS2 - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    ExtUtils::MM_Unix - methods used by ExtUtils::MakeMaker

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    METHODS
    Preloaded methods
    canonpath

    catdir

    catfile

    curdir

    rootdir

    updir

    SelfLoaded methods
    c_o (o)

    cflags (o)

    clean (o)

    const_cccmd (o)

    const_config (o)

    const_loadlibs (o)

    constants (o)

    depend (o)

    dir_target (o)

    dist (o)

    dist_basics (o)

    dist_ci (o)

    dist_core (o)

    dist_dir (o)

    dist_test (o)

    dlsyms (o)

    dynamic (o)

    dynamic_bs (o)

    dynamic_lib (o)

    exescan

    extliblist

    file_name_is_absolute

    find_perl

    Methods to actually produce chunks of text for the Makefile
    fixin

    force (o)

    guess_name

    has_link_code

    htmlifypods (o)

    init_dirscan

    init_main

    init_others

    install (o)

    installbin (o)

    libscan (o)

    linkext (o)

    lsdir

    macro (o)

    makeaperl (o)

    makefile (o)

    manifypods (o)

    maybe_command

    maybe_command_in_dirs

    needs_linking (o)

    nicetext

    parse_version

    parse_abstract

    pasthru (o)

    path

    perl_script

    perldepend (o)

    ppd

    perm_rw (o)

    perm_rwx (o)

    pm_to_blib

    post_constants (o)

    post_initialize (o)

    postamble (o)

    prefixify

    processPL (o)

    realclean (o)

    replace_manpage_separator

    static (o)

    static_lib (o)

    staticmake (o)

    subdir_x (o)

    subdirs (o)

    test (o)

    test_via_harness (o)

    test_via_script (o)

    tool_autosplit (o)

    tools_other (o)

    tool_xsubpp (o)

    top_targets (o)

    writedoc

    xs_c (o)

    xs_cpp (o)

    xs_o (o)

    perl_archive

    export_list

    SEE ALSO

    ExtUtils::MM_VMS - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Methods always loaded
    wraplist

    rootdir (override)

    SelfLoaded methods
    guess_name (override)

    find_perl (override)

    path (override)

    maybe_command (override)

    maybe_command_in_dirs (override)

    perl_script (override)

    file_name_is_absolute (override)

    replace_manpage_separator

    init_others (override)

    constants (override)

    cflags (override)

    const_cccmd (override)

    pm_to_blib (override)

    tool_autosplit (override)

    tool_sxubpp (override)

    xsubpp_version (override)

    tools_other (override)

    dist (override)

    c_o (override)

    xs_c (override)

    xs_o (override)

    top_targets (override)

    dlsyms (override)

    dynamic_lib (override)

    dynamic_bs (override)

    static_lib (override)

    manifypods (override)

    processPL (override)

    installbin (override)

    subdir_x (override)

    clean (override)

    realclean (override)

    dist_basics (override)

    dist_core (override)

    dist_dir (override)

    dist_test (override)

    install (override)

    perldepend (override)

    makefile (override)

    test (override)

    test_via_harness (override)

    test_via_script (override)

    makeaperl (override)

    nicetext (override)

    ExtUtils::MM_Win32 - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    catfile

    constants (o)

    static_lib (o)

    dynamic_bs (o)

    dynamic_lib (o)

    canonpath

    perl_script

    pm_to_blib

    test_via_harness (o)

    tool_autosplit (override)

    tools_other (o)

    xs_o (o)

    top_targets (o)

    htmlifypods (o)

    manifypods (o)

    dist_ci (o)

    dist_core (o)

    pasthru (o)

    ExtUtils::MakeMaker - create an extension Makefile

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    How To Write A Makefile.PL
    Default Makefile Behaviour
    make test
    make testdb
    make install
    PREFIX and LIB attribute
    AFS users
    Static Linking of a new Perl Binary
    Determination of Perl Library and Installation Locations
    Which architecture dependent directory?
    Using Attributes and Parameters
    AUTHOR, ABSTRACT, ABSTRACT_FROM, BINARY_LOCATION, C, CAPI, CCFLAGS, CONFIG, CONFIGURE, DEFINE, DIR, DISTNAME, DL_FUNCS, DL_VARS, EXCLUDE_EXT, EXE_FILES, FIRST_MAKEFILE, FULLPERL, FUNCLIST, H, HTMLLIBPODS, HTMLSCRIPTPODS, IMPORTS, INC, INCLUDE_EXT, INSTALLARCHLIB, INSTALLBIN, INSTALLDIRS, INSTALLHTMLPRIVLIBDIR, INSTALLHTMLSCRIPTDIR, INSTALLHTMLSITELIBDIR, INSTALLMAN1DIR, INSTALLMAN3DIR, INSTALLPRIVLIB, INSTALLSCRIPT, INSTALLSITEARCH, INSTALLSITELIB, INST_ARCHLIB, INST_BIN, INST_EXE, INST_LIB, INST_HTMLLIBDIR, INST_HTMLSCRIPTDIR, INST_MAN1DIR, INST_MAN3DIR, INST_SCRIPT, PERL_MALLOC_OK, LDFROM, LIB, LIBPERL_A, LIBS, LINKTYPE, MAKEAPERL, MAKEFILE, MAN1PODS, MAN3PODS, MAP_TARGET, MYEXTLIB, NAME, NEEDS_LINKING, NOECHO, NORECURS, NO_VC, OBJECT, OPTIMIZE, PERL, PERLMAINCC, PERL_ARCHLIB, PERL_LIB, PERL_SRC, PERM_RW, PERM_RWX, PL_FILES, PM, PMLIBDIRS, POLLUTE, PPM_INSTALL_EXEC, PPM_INSTALL_SCRIPT, PREFIX, PREREQ_PM, SKIP, TYPEMAPS, VERSION, VERSION_FROM, XS, XSOPT, XSPROTOARG, XS_VERSION

    Additional lowercase attributes
    clean, depend, dist, dynamic_lib, linkext, macro, realclean, test, tool_autosplit

    Overriding MakeMaker Methods
    Hintsfile support
    Distribution Support
       make distcheck,    make skipcheck,    make distclean,    make manifest, 
      make distdir,    make tardist,    make dist,    make uutardist,    make
    shdist,    make zipdist,    make ci
    Disabling an extension
    ENVIRONMENT
    PERL_MM_OPT

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHORS

    ExtUtils::Manifest - utilities to write and check a MANIFEST file

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    MANIFEST.SKIP
    EXPORT_OK
    GLOBAL VARIABLES
    DIAGNOSTICS
    Not in MANIFEST: file, No such file: file, MANIFEST: $!, Added to MANIFEST: file

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    ExtUtils::Miniperl, writemain - write the C code for perlmain.c

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    SEE ALSO

    ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap - make a bootstrap file for use by DynaLoader

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    ExtUtils::Mksymlists - write linker options files for dynamic extension

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    DLBASE, DL_FUNCS, DL_VARS, FILE, FUNCLIST, IMPORTS, NAME

    AUTHOR
    REVISION

    ExtUtils::Packlist - manage .packlist files

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    USAGE
    FUNCTIONS
    new(), read(), write(), validate(), packlist_file()

    EXAMPLE
    AUTHOR

    ExtUtils::testlib - add blib/* directories to @INC

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    Fatal - replace functions with equivalents which succeed or die

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR

    Fcntl - load the C Fcntl.h defines

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    NOTE
    EXPORTED SYMBOLS

    File::Basename, fileparse - split a pathname into pieces

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    fileparse_set_fstype, fileparse

    EXAMPLES
    basename, dirname

    File::CheckTree, validate - run many filetest checks on a tree

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    File::Compare - Compare files or filehandles

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    RETURN
    AUTHOR

    File::Copy - Copy files or filehandles

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Special behaviour if syscopy is defined (OS/2, VMS and Win32)
    rmscopy($from,$to[,$date_flag])

    RETURN
    AUTHOR

    File::DosGlob - DOS like globbing and then some

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXPORTS (by request only)
    BUGS
    AUTHOR
    HISTORY
    SEE ALSO

    File::Find, find - traverse a file tree

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    wanted, bydepth, follow, follow_fast, follow_skip, no_chdir, untaint, untaint_pattern, untaint_skip

    CAVEAT

    File::Glob - Perl extension for BSD glob routine

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    GLOB_ERR, GLOB_MARK, GLOB_NOCASE, GLOB_NOCHECK, GLOB_NOSORT, GLOB_BRACE, GLOB_NOMAGIC, GLOB_QUOTE, GLOB_TILDE, GLOB_CSH

    DIAGNOSTICS
    GLOB_NOSPACE, GLOB_ABEND

    NOTES
    AUTHOR

    File::Path - create or remove directory trees

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHORS

    File::Spec - portably perform operations on file names

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHORS

    File::Spec::Functions - portably perform operations on file names

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Exports
    SEE ALSO

    File::Spec::Mac - File::Spec for MacOS

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    METHODS
    canonpath

    catdir

    catfile

    curdir

    devnull

    rootdir

    tmpdir

    updir

    file_name_is_absolute

    path

    splitpath

    splitdir

    catpath

    abs2rel

    rel2abs

    SEE ALSO

    File::Spec::OS2 - methods for OS/2 file specs

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    File::Spec::Unix - methods used by File::Spec

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    METHODS
    canonpath

    catdir

    catfile

    curdir

    devnull

    rootdir

    tmpdir

    updir

    no_upwards

    case_tolerant

    file_name_is_absolute

    path

    join

    splitpath

    splitdir

    catpath

    abs2rel

    rel2abs

    SEE ALSO

    File::Spec::VMS - methods for VMS file specs

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    eliminate_macros

    fixpath

    Methods always loaded
    canonpath (override)

    catdir

    catfile

    curdir (override)

    devnull (override)

    rootdir (override)

    tmpdir (override)

    updir (override)

    case_tolerant (override)

    path (override)

    file_name_is_absolute (override)

    splitpath (override)

    splitdir (override)

    catpath (override)

    abs2rel (override)

    rel2abs (override)

    SEE ALSO

    File::Spec::Win32 - methods for Win32 file specs

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    devnull

    tmpdir

    catfile

    canonpath

    splitpath

    splitdir

    catpath

    abs2rel

    rel2abs

    SEE ALSO

    File::stat - by-name interface to Perl's built-in stat() functions

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    NOTE
    AUTHOR

    FileCache - keep more files open than the system permits

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    BUGS

    FileHandle - supply object methods for filehandles

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    $fh->print, $fh->printf, $fh->getline, $fh->getlines

    SEE ALSO

    FindBin - Locate directory of original perl script

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXPORTABLE VARIABLES
    KNOWN BUGS
    AUTHORS
    COPYRIGHT

    GDBM_File - Perl5 access to the gdbm library.

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AVAILABILITY
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO

    Getopt::Long - Extended processing of command line options

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Command Line Options, an Introduction
    Getting Started with Getopt::Long
    Simple options
    A little bit less simple options
    Mixing command line option with other arguments
    Options with values
    Options with multiple values
    Options with hash values
    User-defined subroutines to handle options
    Options with multiple names
    Case and abbreviations
    Summary of Option Specifications
    !, +, s, i, f, : type [ desttype ]

    Advanced Possibilities
    Documentation and help texts
    Storing options in a hash
    Bundling
    The lonesome dash
    Argument call-back
    Configuring Getopt::Long
    default, auto_abbrev, getopt_compat, require_order, permute, bundling (default: reset), bundling_override (default: reset), ignore_case (default: set), ignore_case_always (default: reset), pass_through (default: reset), prefix, prefix_pattern, debug (default: reset)

    Return values and Errors
    Legacy
    Default destinations
    Alternative option starters
    Configuration variables
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMER

    Getopt::Std, getopt - Process single-character switches with switch clustering

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    I18N::Collate - compare 8-bit scalar data according to the current locale

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    IO - load various IO modules

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    IO::Dir - supply object methods for directory handles

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    new ( [ DIRNAME ] ), open ( DIRNAME ), read (), seek ( POS ), tell (), rewind (), close (), tie %hash, IO::Dir, DIRNAME [, OPTIONS ]

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::File - supply object methods for filehandles

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR
    new ( FILENAME [,MODE [,PERMS]] ), new_tmpfile

    METHODS
    open( FILENAME [,MODE [,PERMS]] )

    SEE ALSO
    HISTORY

    IO::Handle - supply object methods for I/O handles

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR
    new (), new_from_fd ( FD, MODE )

    METHODS
    $io->fdopen ( FD, MODE ), $io->opened, $io->getline, $io->getlines, $io->ungetc ( ORD ), $io->write ( BUF, LEN [, OFFSET ] ), $io->error, $io->clearerr, $io->sync, $io->flush, $io->printflush ( ARGS ), $io->blocking ( [ BOOL ] ), $io->untaint

    NOTE
    SEE ALSO
    BUGS
    HISTORY

    IO::Pipe - supply object methods for pipes

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR
    new ( [READER, WRITER] )

    METHODS
    reader ([ARGS]), writer ([ARGS]), handles ()

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::Poll - Object interface to system poll call

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    METHODS
    mask ( IO [, EVENT_MASK ] ), poll ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), events ( IO ), remove ( IO ), handles( [ EVENT_MASK ] )

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::Seekable - supply seek based methods for I/O objects

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    SEE ALSO
    HISTORY

    IO::Select - OO interface to the select system call

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR
    new ( [ HANDLES ] )

    METHODS
    add ( HANDLES ), remove ( HANDLES ), exists ( HANDLE ), handles, can_read ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), can_write ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), has_exception ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), count (), bits(), select ( READ, WRITE, ERROR [, TIMEOUT ] )

    EXAMPLE
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::Socket - Object interface to socket communications

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR
    new ( [ARGS] )

    METHODS
    accept([PKG]), socketpair(DOMAIN, TYPE, PROTOCOL), timeout([VAL]), sockopt(OPT [, VAL]), sockdomain, socktype, protocol, connected

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::Socket::INET - Object interface for AF_INET domain sockets

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR
    new ( [ARGS] )
    METHODS
    sockaddr (), sockport (), sockhost (), peeraddr (), peerport (), peerhost ()

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::Socket::UNIX - Object interface for AF_UNIX domain sockets

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR
    new ( [ARGS] )

    METHODS
    hostpath(), peerpath()

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::lib::IO::Dir, IO::Dir - supply object methods for directory handles

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    new ( [ DIRNAME ] ), open ( DIRNAME ), read (), seek ( POS ), tell (), rewind (), close (), tie %hash, IO::Dir, DIRNAME [, OPTIONS ]

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::lib::IO::File, IO::File - supply object methods for filehandles

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR
    new ( FILENAME [,MODE [,PERMS]] ), new_tmpfile

    METHODS
    open( FILENAME [,MODE [,PERMS]] )

    SEE ALSO
    HISTORY

    IO::lib::IO::Handle, IO::Handle - supply object methods for I/O handles

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR
    new (), new_from_fd ( FD, MODE )

    METHODS
    $io->fdopen ( FD, MODE ), $io->opened, $io->getline, $io->getlines, $io->ungetc ( ORD ), $io->write ( BUF, LEN [, OFFSET ] ), $io->error, $io->clearerr, $io->sync, $io->flush, $io->printflush ( ARGS ), $io->blocking ( [ BOOL ] ), $io->untaint

    NOTE
    SEE ALSO
    BUGS
    HISTORY

    IO::lib::IO::Pipe, IO::Pipe - supply object methods for pipes

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR
    new ( [READER, WRITER] )

    METHODS
    reader ([ARGS]), writer ([ARGS]), handles ()

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::lib::IO::Poll, IO::Poll - Object interface to system poll call

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    METHODS
    mask ( IO [, EVENT_MASK ] ), poll ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), events ( IO ), remove ( IO ), handles( [ EVENT_MASK ] )

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::lib::IO::Seekable, IO::Seekable - supply seek based methods for I/O objects

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    SEE ALSO
    HISTORY

    IO::lib::IO::Select, IO::Select - OO interface to the select system call

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR
    new ( [ HANDLES ] )

    METHODS
    add ( HANDLES ), remove ( HANDLES ), exists ( HANDLE ), handles, can_read ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), can_write ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), has_exception ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), count (), bits(), select ( READ, WRITE, ERROR [, TIMEOUT ] )

    EXAMPLE
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::lib::IO::Socket, IO::Socket - Object interface to socket communications

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR
    new ( [ARGS] )

    METHODS
    accept([PKG]), socketpair(DOMAIN, TYPE, PROTOCOL), timeout([VAL]), sockopt(OPT [, VAL]), sockdomain, socktype, protocol, connected

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::lib::IO::Socket::INET, IO::Socket::INET - Object interface for AF_INET domain sockets

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR
    new ( [ARGS] )
    METHODS
    sockaddr (), sockport (), sockhost (), peeraddr (), peerport (), peerhost ()

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::lib::IO::Socket::UNIX, IO::Socket::UNIX - Object interface for AF_UNIX domain sockets

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR
    new ( [ARGS] )

    METHODS
    hostpath(), peerpath()

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IPC::Msg - SysV Msg IPC object class

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    METHODS
    new ( KEY , FLAGS ), id, rcv ( BUF, LEN [, TYPE [, FLAGS ]] ), remove, set ( STAT ), set ( NAME => VALUE [, NAME => VALUE ...] ), snd ( TYPE, MSG [, FLAGS ] ), stat

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IPC::Open2, open2 - open a process for both reading and writing

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    WARNING
    SEE ALSO

    IPC::Open3, open3 - open a process for reading, writing, and error handling

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    WARNING

    IPC::Semaphore - SysV Semaphore IPC object class

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    METHODS
    new ( KEY , NSEMS , FLAGS ), getall, getncnt ( SEM ), getpid ( SEM ), getval ( SEM ), getzcnt ( SEM ), id, op ( OPLIST ), remove, set ( STAT ), set ( NAME => VALUE [, NAME => VALUE ...] ), setall ( VALUES ), setval ( N , VALUE ), stat

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IPC::SysV - SysV IPC constants

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    ftok( PATH, ID )

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHORS
    COPYRIGHT

    IPC::SysV::Msg, IPC::Msg - SysV Msg IPC object class

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    METHODS
    new ( KEY , FLAGS ), id, rcv ( BUF, LEN [, TYPE [, FLAGS ]] ), remove, set ( STAT ), set ( NAME => VALUE [, NAME => VALUE ...] ), snd ( TYPE, MSG [, FLAGS ] ), stat

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IPC::SysV::Semaphore, IPC::Semaphore - SysV Semaphore IPC object class

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    METHODS
    new ( KEY , NSEMS , FLAGS ), getall, getncnt ( SEM ), getpid ( SEM ), getval ( SEM ), getzcnt ( SEM ), id, op ( OPLIST ), remove, set ( STAT ), set ( NAME => VALUE [, NAME => VALUE ...] ), setall ( VALUES ), setval ( N , VALUE ), stat

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    Math::BigFloat - Arbitrary length float math package

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    number format, Error returns 'NaN', Division is computed to, Rounding is performed

    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    Math::BigInt - Arbitrary size integer math package

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Canonical notation, Input, Output

    EXAMPLES
    Autocreating constants
    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    Math::Trig - trigonometric functions

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
    tan
    ERRORS DUE TO DIVISION BY ZERO
    SIMPLE (REAL) ARGUMENTS, COMPLEX RESULTS
    PLANE ANGLE CONVERSIONS
    RADIAL COORDINATE CONVERSIONS
    COORDINATE SYSTEMS
  • -D ANGLE CONVERSIONS
    cartesian_to_cylindrical, cartesian_to_spherical, cylindrical_to_cartesian, cylindrical_to_spherical, spherical_to_cartesian, spherical_to_cylindrical

  • GREAT CIRCLE DISTANCES
    EXAMPLES
    BUGS
    AUTHORS

    NDBM_File - Tied access to ndbm files

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    Net::Ping - check a remote host for reachability

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Functions
    Net::Ping->new([$proto [, $def_timeout [, $bytes]]]);, $p->ping($host [, $timeout]);, $p->close();, pingecho($host [, $timeout]);

    WARNING
    NOTES

    Net::hostent - by-name interface to Perl's built-in gethost*() functions

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXAMPLES
    NOTE
    AUTHOR

    Net::netent - by-name interface to Perl's built-in getnet*() functions

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXAMPLES
    NOTE
    AUTHOR

    Net::protoent - by-name interface to Perl's built-in getproto*() functions

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    NOTE
    AUTHOR

    Net::servent - by-name interface to Perl's built-in getserv*() functions

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXAMPLES
    NOTE
    AUTHOR

    O - Generic interface to Perl Compiler backends

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONVENTIONS
    IMPLEMENTATION
    AUTHOR

    ODBM_File - Tied access to odbm files

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    Opcode - Disable named opcodes when compiling perl code

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    NOTE
    WARNING
    Operator Names and Operator Lists
    an operator name (opname), an operator tag name (optag), a negated opname or optag, an operator set (opset)

    Opcode Functions
    opcodes, opset (OP, ...), opset_to_ops (OPSET), opset_to_hex (OPSET), full_opset, empty_opset, invert_opset (OPSET), verify_opset (OPSET, ...), define_optag (OPTAG, OPSET), opmask_add (OPSET), opmask, opdesc (OP, ...), opdump (PAT)

    Manipulating Opsets
    TO DO (maybe)
    Predefined Opcode Tags
    :base_core, :base_mem, :base_loop, :base_io, :base_orig, :base_math, :base_thread, :default, :filesys_read, :sys_db, :browse, :filesys_open, :filesys_write, :subprocess, :ownprocess, :others, :still_to_be_decided, :dangerous

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHORS

    Opcode::Safe, Safe - Compile and execute code in restricted compartments

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    a new namespace, an operator mask

    WARNING
    RECENT CHANGES
    Methods in class Safe
    permit (OP, ...), permit_only (OP, ...), deny (OP, ...), deny_only (OP, ...), trap (OP, ...), untrap (OP, ...), share (NAME, ...), share_from (PACKAGE, ARRAYREF), varglob (VARNAME), reval (STRING), rdo (FILENAME), root (NAMESPACE), mask (MASK)

    Some Safety Issues
    Memory, CPU, Snooping, Signals, State Changes

    AUTHOR

    Opcode::ops, ops - Perl pragma to restrict unsafe operations when compiling

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    SEE ALSO

    POSIX - Perl interface to IEEE Std 1003.1

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    NOTE
    CAVEATS
    FUNCTIONS
    _exit, abort, abs, access, acos, alarm, asctime, asin, assert, atan, atan2, atexit, atof, atoi, atol, bsearch, calloc, ceil, chdir, chmod, chown, clearerr, clock, close, closedir, cos, cosh, creat, ctermid, ctime, cuserid, difftime, div, dup, dup2, errno, execl, execle, execlp, execv, execve, execvp, exit, exp, fabs, fclose, fcntl, fdopen, feof, ferror, fflush, fgetc, fgetpos, fgets, fileno, floor, fmod, fopen, fork, fpathconf, fprintf, fputc, fputs, fread, free, freopen, frexp, fscanf, fseek, fsetpos, fstat, ftell, fwrite, getc, getchar, getcwd, getegid, getenv, geteuid, getgid, getgrgid, getgrnam, getgroups, getlogin, getpgrp, getpid, getppid, getpwnam, getpwuid, gets, getuid, gmtime, isalnum, isalpha, isatty, iscntrl, isdigit, isgraph, islower, isprint, ispunct, isspace, isupper, isxdigit, kill, labs, ldexp, ldiv, link, localeconv, localtime, log, log10, longjmp, lseek, malloc, mblen, mbstowcs, mbtowc, memchr, memcmp, memcpy, memmove, memset, mkdir, mkfifo, mktime, modf, nice, offsetof, open, opendir, pathconf, pause, perror, pipe, pow, printf, putc, putchar, puts, qsort, raise, rand, read, readdir, realloc, remove, rename, rewind, rewinddir, rmdir, scanf, setgid, setjmp, setlocale, setpgid, setsid, setuid, sigaction, siglongjmp, sigpending, sigprocmask, sigsetjmp, sigsuspend, sin, sinh, sleep, sprintf, sqrt, srand, sscanf, stat, strcat, strchr, strcmp, strcoll, strcpy, strcspn, strerror, strftime, strlen, strncat, strncmp, strncpy, stroul, strpbrk, strrchr, strspn, strstr, strtod, strtok, strtol, strtoul, strxfrm, sysconf, system, tan, tanh, tcdrain, tcflow, tcflush, tcgetpgrp, tcsendbreak, tcsetpgrp, time, times, tmpfile, tmpnam, tolower, toupper, ttyname, tzname, tzset, umask, uname, ungetc, unlink, utime, vfprintf, vprintf, vsprintf, wait, waitpid, wcstombs, wctomb, write

    CLASSES
    POSIX::SigAction
    new

    POSIX::SigSet
    new, addset, delset, emptyset, fillset, ismember

    POSIX::Termios
    new, getattr, getcc, getcflag, getiflag, getispeed, getlflag, getoflag, getospeed, setattr, setcc, setcflag, setiflag, setispeed, setlflag, setoflag, setospeed, Baud rate values, Terminal interface values, c_cc field values, c_cflag field values, c_iflag field values, c_lflag field values, c_oflag field values

    PATHNAME CONSTANTS
    Constants

    POSIX CONSTANTS
    Constants

    SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
    Constants

    ERRNO
    Constants

    FCNTL
    Constants

    FLOAT
    Constants

    LIMITS
    Constants

    LOCALE
    Constants

    MATH
    Constants

    SIGNAL
    Constants

    STAT
    Constants, Macros

    STDLIB
    Constants

    STDIO
    Constants

    TIME
    Constants

    UNISTD
    Constants

    WAIT
    Constants, Macros

    CREATION

    Pod::Checker, podchecker() - check pod documents for syntax errors

    SYNOPSIS
    OPTIONS/ARGUMENTS
    podchecker()
    -warnings => val

    DESCRIPTION
    DIAGNOSTICS
    Errors
    empty =headn, =over on line N without closing =back, =item without previous =over, =back without previous =over, No argument for =begin, =end without =begin, Nested =begin's, =for without formatter specification, unresolved internal link NAME, Unknown command ``CMD'', Unknown interior-sequence ``SEQ'', nested commands CMD<...CMD<...>...>, garbled entity STRING, Entity number out of range, malformed link L<>, nonempty Z<>, empty X<>, Spurious text after =pod / =cut, Spurious character(s) after =back

    Warnings
    multiple occurence of link target name, line containing nothing but whitespace in paragraph, file does not start with =head, No numeric argument for =over, previous =item has no contents, preceding non-item paragraph(s), =item type mismatch (one vs. two), N unescaped <> in paragraph, Unknown entity, No items in =over, No argument for =item, empty section in previous paragraph, Verbatim paragraph in NAME section, Hyperlinks

    RETURN VALUE
    EXAMPLES
    INTERFACE

    $checker->poderror( @args ), $checker->poderror( {%opts}, @args )

    $checker->num_errors()

    $checker->name()

    $checker->node()

    $checker->idx()

    $checker->hyperlink()

    AUTHOR

    Pod::Find - find POD documents in directory trees

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OPTIONS
    -verbose, -perl, -script, -inc

    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    Pod::Html - module to convert pod files to HTML

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    ARGUMENTS
    backlink, css, flush, header, help, htmldir, htmlroot, index, infile, libpods, netscape, outfile, podpath, podroot, quiet, recurse, title, verbose

    EXAMPLE
    ENVIRONMENT
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO
    COPYRIGHT

    Pod::InputObjects - objects representing POD input paragraphs, commands, etc.

    SYNOPSIS
    REQUIRES
    EXPORTS
    DESCRIPTION
    Pod::InputSource, Pod::Paragraph, Pod::InteriorSequence, Pod::ParseTree

    Pod::InputSource
    new()
    name()
    handle()
    was_cutting()
    Pod::Paragraph
    new()
    cmd_name()
    text()
    raw_text()
    cmd_prefix()
    cmd_separator()
    parse_tree()
    file_line()
    Pod::InteriorSequence
    new()
    cmd_name()
    prepend()
    append()
    nested()
    raw_text()
    left_delimiter()
    right_delimiter()
    parse_tree()
    file_line()
    DESTROY()
    Pod::ParseTree
    new()
    top()
    children()
    prepend()
    append()
    raw_text()
    DESTROY()
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    Pod::Man - Convert POD data to formatted *roff input

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    center, date, fixed, fixedbold, fixeditalic, fixedbolditalic, release, section

    DIAGNOSTICS
    roff font should be 1 or 2 chars, not `%s', Invalid link %s, Unknown escape E<%s>, Unknown sequence %s, Unmatched =back

    BUGS
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    Pod::ParseUtils - helpers for POD parsing and conversion

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Pod::List
    new()

    file()

    start()

    indent()

    type()

    rx()

    item()

    parent()

    tag()

    Pod::Hyperlink
    new()

    parse($string)

    markup($string)

    text()

    warning()

    line(), file()

    page()

    node()

    alttext()

    type()

    link()

    Pod::Cache
    new()

    item()

    find_page($name)

    Pod::Cache::Item
    new()

    page()

    description()

    path()

    file()

    nodes()

    find_node($name)

    idx()

    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    Pod::Parser - base class for creating POD filters and translators

    SYNOPSIS
    REQUIRES
    EXPORTS
    DESCRIPTION
    QUICK OVERVIEW
    PARSING OPTIONS
    -want_nonPODs (default: unset), -process_cut_cmd (default: unset), -warnings (default: unset)

    RECOMMENDED SUBROUTINE/METHOD OVERRIDES
    command()
    $cmd, $text, $line_num, $pod_para

    verbatim()
    $text, $line_num, $pod_para

    textblock()
    $text, $line_num, $pod_para

    interior_sequence()
    OPTIONAL SUBROUTINE/METHOD OVERRIDES
    new()
    initialize()
    begin_pod()
    begin_input()
    end_input()
    end_pod()
    preprocess_line()
    preprocess_paragraph()
    METHODS FOR PARSING AND PROCESSING
    parse_text()
    -expand_seq => code-ref|method-name, -expand_text => code-ref|method-name, -expand_ptree => code-ref|method-name

    interpolate()
    parse_paragraph()
    parse_from_filehandle()
    parse_from_file()
    ACCESSOR METHODS
    errorsub()
    cutting()
    parseopts()
    output_file()
    output_handle()
    input_file()
    input_handle()
    input_streams()
    top_stream()
    PRIVATE METHODS AND DATA
    _push_input_stream()
    _pop_input_stream()
    TREE-BASED PARSING
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    Pod::Plainer - Perl extension for converting Pod to old style Pod.

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXPORT
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    Pod::Select, podselect() - extract selected sections of POD from input

    SYNOPSIS
    REQUIRES
    EXPORTS
    DESCRIPTION
    SECTION SPECIFICATIONS
    RANGE SPECIFICATIONS
    OBJECT METHODS
    curr_headings()
    select()
    add_selection()
    clear_selections()
    match_section()
    is_selected()
    EXPORTED FUNCTIONS
    podselect()
    -output, -sections, -ranges

    PRIVATE METHODS AND DATA
    _compile_section_spec()
    $self->{_SECTION_HEADINGS}
    $self->{_SELECTED_SECTIONS}
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    Pod::Text - Convert POD data to formatted ASCII text

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    alt, indent, loose, sentence, width

    DIAGNOSTICS
    Bizarre space in item, Can't open %s for reading: %s, Unknown escape: %s, Unknown sequence: %s, Unmatched =back

    RESTRICTIONS
    NOTES
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    Pod::Text::Color - Convert POD data to formatted color ASCII text

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    Pod::Text::Termcap, Pod::Text::Color - Convert POD data to ASCII text with format escapes

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    Pod::Usage, pod2usage() - print a usage message from embedded pod documentation

    SYNOPSIS
    ARGUMENTS
    -message, -msg, -exitval, -verbose, -output, -input, -pathlist

    DESCRIPTION
    EXAMPLES
    Recommended Use
    CAVEATS
    AUTHOR
    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    SDBM_File - Tied access to sdbm files

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    Safe - Compile and execute code in restricted compartments

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    a new namespace, an operator mask

    WARNING
    RECENT CHANGES
    Methods in class Safe
    permit (OP, ...), permit_only (OP, ...), deny (OP, ...), deny_only (OP, ...), trap (OP, ...), untrap (OP, ...), share (NAME, ...), share_from (PACKAGE, ARRAYREF), varglob (VARNAME), reval (STRING), rdo (FILENAME), root (NAMESPACE), mask (MASK)

    Some Safety Issues
    Memory, CPU, Snooping, Signals, State Changes

    AUTHOR

    Search::Dict, look - search for key in dictionary file

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    SelectSaver - save and restore selected file handle

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    SelfLoader - load functions only on demand

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    The __DATA__ token
    SelfLoader autoloading
    Autoloading and package lexicals
    SelfLoader and AutoLoader
    __DATA__, __END__, and the FOOBAR::DATA filehandle.
    Classes and inherited methods.
    Multiple packages and fully qualified subroutine names

    Shell - run shell commands transparently within perl

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR

    Socket, sockaddr_in, sockaddr_un, inet_aton, inet_ntoa - load the C socket.h defines and structure manipulators

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    inet_aton HOSTNAME, inet_ntoa IP_ADDRESS, INADDR_ANY, INADDR_BROADCAST, INADDR_LOOPBACK, INADDR_NONE, sockaddr_in PORT, ADDRESS, sockaddr_in SOCKADDR_IN, pack_sockaddr_in PORT, IP_ADDRESS, unpack_sockaddr_in SOCKADDR_IN, sockaddr_un PATHNAME, sockaddr_un SOCKADDR_UN, pack_sockaddr_un PATH, unpack_sockaddr_un SOCKADDR_UN

    Symbol - manipulate Perl symbols and their names

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    Sys::Hostname - Try every conceivable way to get hostname

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR

    Syslog, Sys::Syslog, openlog, closelog, setlogmask, syslog - Perl interface to the UNIX syslog(3) calls

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    openlog $ident, $logopt, $facility, syslog $priority, $format, @args, setlogmask $mask_priority, setlogsock $sock_type (added in 5.004_02), closelog

    EXAMPLES
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    Syslog::Syslog, Sys::Syslog, openlog, closelog, setlogmask, syslog - Perl interface to the UNIX syslog(3) calls

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    openlog $ident, $logopt, $facility, syslog $priority, $format, @args, setlogmask $mask_priority, setlogsock $sock_type (added in 5.004_02), closelog

    EXAMPLES
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    Term::ANSIColor - Color screen output using ANSI escape sequences

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    DIAGNOSTICS
    Invalid attribute name %s, Identifier %s used only once: possible typo, No comma allowed after filehandle, Bareword %s not allowed while ``strict subs'' in use

    RESTRICTIONS
    AUTHORS

    Term::Cap - Perl termcap interface

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXAMPLES

    Term::Complete - Perl word completion module

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    <tab>, ^D, ^U, <del>, <bs>

    DIAGNOSTICS
    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    Term::ReadLine - Perl interface to various readline packages. If no real package is found, substitutes stubs instead of basic functions.

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Minimal set of supported functions
    ReadLine, new, readline, addhistory, IN, $OUT, MinLine, findConsole, Attribs, Features

    Additional supported functions
    tkRunning, ornaments, newTTY

    EXPORTS
    ENVIRONMENT

    Test - provides a simple framework for writing test scripts

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    TEST TYPES
    NORMAL TESTS, SKIPPED TESTS, TODO TESTS

    RETURN VALUE
    ONFAIL
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    Test::Harness - run perl standard test scripts with statistics

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    The test script output
    EXPORT
    DIAGNOSTICS
    All tests successful.\nFiles=%d, Tests=%d, %s, FAILED tests %s\n\tFailed %d/%d tests, %.2f%% okay., Test returned status %d (wstat %d), Failed 1 test, %.2f%% okay. %s, Failed %d/%d tests, %.2f%% okay. %s

    ENVIRONMENT
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHORS
    BUGS

    Text::Abbrev, abbrev - create an abbreviation table from a list

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXAMPLE

    Text::ParseWords - parse text into an array of tokens or array of arrays

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXAMPLES
    0a simple word, 1multiple spaces are skipped because of our $delim, 2use of quotes to include a space in a word, 3use of a backslash to include a space in a word, 4use of a backslash to remove the special meaning of a double-quote, 5another simple word (note the lack of effect of the backslashed double-quote)

    AUTHORS

    Text::Soundex - Implementation of the Soundex Algorithm as Described by Knuth

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXAMPLES
    LIMITATIONS
    AUTHOR

    Text::Tabs -- expand and unexpand tabs per the unix expand(1) and unexpand(1)

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    Text::Wrap - line wrapping to form simple paragraphs

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXAMPLE
    AUTHOR

    Thread - manipulate threads in Perl (EXPERIMENTAL, subject to change)

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    FUNCTIONS
    new \&start_sub, new \&start_sub, LIST, lock VARIABLE, async BLOCK;, Thread->self, Thread->list, cond_wait VARIABLE, cond_signal VARIABLE, cond_broadcast VARIABLE, yield

    METHODS
    join, eval, detach, equal, tid

    LIMITATIONS
    SEE ALSO

    Thread::Queue - thread-safe queues

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    FUNCTIONS AND METHODS
    new, enqueue LIST, dequeue, dequeue_nb, pending

    SEE ALSO

    Thread::Semaphore - thread-safe semaphores

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    FUNCTIONS AND METHODS
    new, new NUMBER, down, down NUMBER, up, up NUMBER

    Thread::Signal - Start a thread which runs signal handlers reliably

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    BUGS

    Thread::Specific - thread-specific keys

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    Tie::Array - base class for tied arrays

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    TIEARRAY classname, LIST, STORE this, index, value, FETCH this, index, FETCHSIZE this, STORESIZE this, count, EXTEND this, count, EXISTS this, key, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this, DESTROY this, PUSH this, LIST, POP this, SHIFT this, UNSHIFT this, LIST, SPLICE this, offset, length, LIST

    CAVEATS
    AUTHOR

    Tie::Handle, Tie::StdHandle - base class definitions for tied handles

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    TIEHANDLE classname, LIST, WRITE this, scalar, length, offset, PRINT this, LIST, PRINTF this, format, LIST, READ this, scalar, length, offset, READLINE this, GETC this, CLOSE this, OPEN this, filename, BINMODE this, EOF this, TELL this, SEEK this, offset, whence, DESTROY this

    MORE INFORMATION

    Tie::Hash, Tie::StdHash - base class definitions for tied hashes

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    TIEHASH classname, LIST, STORE this, key, value, FETCH this, key, FIRSTKEY this, NEXTKEY this, lastkey, EXISTS this, key, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this

    CAVEATS
    MORE INFORMATION

    Tie::RefHash - use references as hash keys

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXAMPLE
    AUTHOR
    VERSION
    SEE ALSO

    Tie::Scalar, Tie::StdScalar - base class definitions for tied scalars

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    TIESCALAR classname, LIST, FETCH this, STORE this, value, DESTROY this

    MORE INFORMATION

    Tie::SubstrHash - Fixed-table-size, fixed-key-length hashing

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CAVEATS

    Time::Local - efficiently compute time from local and GMT time

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    IMPLEMENTATION
    BUGS

    Time::gmtime - by-name interface to Perl's built-in gmtime() function

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    NOTE
    AUTHOR

    Time::localtime - by-name interface to Perl's built-in localtime() function

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    NOTE
    AUTHOR

    Time::tm - internal object used by Time::gmtime and Time::localtime

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR

    UNIVERSAL - base class for ALL classes (blessed references)

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    isa ( TYPE ), can ( METHOD ), VERSION ( [ REQUIRE ] ), UNIVERSAL::isa ( VAL, TYPE ), UNIVERSAL::can ( VAL, METHOD )

    User::grent - by-name interface to Perl's built-in getgr*() functions

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    NOTE
    AUTHOR

    User::pwent - by-name interface to Perl's built-in getpw*() functions

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    System Specifics
    NOTE
    AUTHOR
    HISTORY
    March 18th, 2000

    XSLoader - Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR


    AUXILIARY DOCUMENTATION

    Here should be listed all the extra programs' documentation, but they don't all have manual pages yet:

    a2p
    s2p
    find2perl
    h2ph
    c2ph
    h2xs
    xsubpp
    pod2man
    wrapsuid


    AUTHOR

    Larry Wall <larry@wall.org>, with the help of oodles of other folks.

     perltoc - perl documentation table of contents